Providing Safe Food

ey Terms
Foodborne IIIness - A disease that is
carried or transmitted to people by food
Outbreak - An incident in which two or
more people experience the same illness
after eating the same food
osts of Foodborne Ìllness
· Loss of :stomers and Sales
· Loss of Prestige and Rep:tation
· Laws:its Res:lting in Lawyer and o:rt
Fees
· Ìncreased Ìns:rance Premi:ms
· Lowered Employee Morale
· Employee Absenteeism
· Need for Retraining Employees
· Embarrassment
Food Safety Programs
· Ìdentifies hazards within the flow of food
· Ìmplements controls based on the
hazards identified
Receive
Store
Prepare
Cook
Hold
Cool
Reheat
Hazard naIysis CriticaI ControI
Point (HCCP) system
igh-Risk Pop:lations
· Ìnfants and yo:ng children
· Pregnant women
· Elderly people
· People taking certain medications
· People with weakened imm:ne systems
Potentially azardo:s Foods (1)
· Milk and Milk Prod:cts
· Sliced Melons
· Shellfish and r:staceans
· Garlic-and-Oil Mixt:re
· Po:ltry
· Spro:ts and Raw Seeds
Foods That Favor Rapid Microorganism
Growth
Potentially azardo:s Foods (2)
· Tof:
· Fish
· Meat: Beef, Pork, Lamb
· Shell Eggs
· Baked or Broiled Potatoes
· Soy-Protein Foods
· ooked Rice, Beans or Other eat-Treated
Plant Foods
Food Safety azards
ioIogicaI
ChemicaI
PhysicaI
eeping Foods Safe
weII-designed food safety system
wiII estabIish controIs to prevent:
· Time-temperat:re ab:se
· ross-contamination
· Poor personal hygiene
ey Practices
ControIIing Time and Temperature
· Receive/store food q:ickly
· Store food at proper temperat:res
· Minimize time food spends in the
Temperat:re Danger Zone (TDZ)
· ook food to minim:m safe internal
temperat:res
· old food at proper temperat:res
· ool/reheat food properly
ey Practices
Practice Good PersonaI Hygiene
· Wash hands properly
· Observe strict r:les for eating, drinking,
and smoking
· Prevent ill employees from working
· Maintain general personal cleanliness
ey Practices
Prevent Cross-Contamination
· Wash hands after handling raw foods
· Don't allow raw foods to to:ch or drip
onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods
· lean and sanitize food-contact
s:rfaces and cloths
The Mission of Food Safety
Manager's ResponsibiIity
· Meet reg:lations
· Food safety
People pose the greatest risk to food safety!
You are responsible for your
employees' actions.
ontamination,
Food Allergies, and
Foodborne Ìllness
Foodborne ontamination
ioIogicaI
· Seafood Toxins
· Plant Toxins
· M:shroom Toxins
ChemicaI
· Toxic Metals
· Pesticides
· leaning Prod:cts
PhysicaI
· Foreign Objects
Biological ontaminants
$eafood Toxins
ig:atera Shellfish Scombroid
Toxin Toxins Toxin
P:rchase seafood from
a rep:table s:pplier
Biological ontaminants
Plant Toxins
Toxic plant species
and prod:cts prepared
with them sho:ld be
avoided
Mushroom Toxins
Establishments sho:ld
not :se wild
m:shrooms or
prod:cts made with
them
hemical ontaminants
Metals
Sho:ld only be food-grade in :tensils and
eq:ipment :sed to prepare and store food
Pesticides
Sho:ld be applied only by a trained Pest
ontrol Operator (PO)
Chemicals
Sho:ld be stored away from food
Physical ontaminants
Accidental Ìntrod:ction of Foreign Objects
[pict:re]
Food Allergies
$ome peopIe are aIIergic to:
· Nitrites
· S:lfites
· Monosodi:m Gl:tamate (MSG)
Food Allergies
eys to Protecting Guests
· Ens:re that yo:r team knows recipe
ingredients
· Be tr:thf:l if :ns:re abo:t possible
recipe allergens
· Make s:re all cooking :tensils and
tableware are allergen-free
The Microworld
ey oncepts to Learn
Disease-a:sing Microorganisms and the
onditions They Need to Grow
Barriers for ontrolling the Growth of
Microorganisms
ey Terms
Microorganism
Small living organism
Pathogen
A disease-ca:sing microorganism
Toxin
Poison
Spoilage Microorganism
Microorganism that ca:ses
spoilage, b:t not illness
Types of Pathogens
Microorganisms That Can Contaminate
Food and Cause Foodborne IIIness
Bacteria Vir:ses Parasites F:ngi
haracteristics of Bacteria
· Living, single-celled
· arried by food, water,
h:mans and insects
· an reprod:ce rapidly
· Some s:rvive freezing
· Some form spores
· Some spoil food; others ca:se disease
· Some ca:se illness by prod:cing toxins
haracteristics of Bacteria
Growth $tages of acteria
Lag
Death
Log
Stationary
Time
haracteristics of Bacteria
acteriaI Growth
Time
10 min 20 min 40 min 1 ho:r 1 hr
20 min
10 hrs
# of
Cells
1 2 4 8 16
More
than 1
billion
onditions for Growth
hat Microorganisms Need to Grow
T
cidity Time
onditions for Growth
· Proteins
· arbohydrates
ood
Microorganisms
req:ire n:trients to
grow:
onditions for Growth
Raw hicken Egg Yolks B:tter
5.5-6.4 6.0-6.3 6.0-6.8
cidity
Pathogenic bacteria grow well at a
p of 4.6 to 7.5

onditions for Growth
Temperature
The Temperat:re Danger Zone
(TDZ)=40ºF to 140ºF (5º to 60º)
· Most microorganisms
grow well in the TDZ
· Some s:rvive and grow
o:tside the TDZ
onditions for Growth
Time
Pathogenic
microorganisms can
grow to high levels if they
remain in the TDZ for
more than fo:r ho:rs
T
onditions for Growth
xygen
Microorganisms have
different oxygen needs
for growth
· Aerobic needs oxygen to grow
· Anaerobic grows only when oxygen is
absent
· Fac:ltative can grow with or witho:t
oxygen
· arbohydrates
onditions for Growth
Moisture
Most potentially
hazardo:s foods have a
water activity of .85 or
above
Raw hicken and B:tter
Water Activities of .95-1.0
ontrolling Growth
Make the food
more acidic
Lower the
water activity
Raise or lower the
temperat:re of the
food
Lessen the time in
the TDZ
· Salmonellosis
· Shigellosis
· Listeriosis
· Staphylococcal food
poisoning
· lostridi:m perfringens
Enteritis
· Bacill:s cere:s
· Gastroenteritis
· Bot:lism
· ampylobacteriosis
· E. coli 0157:7 EE
· Vibrio gastroenteritis
· Yersiniosis
Major Foodborne Ìllnesses
Major Foodborne IIInesses Caused
by acteria
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
$aImoneIIosis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection, possibly toxin-mediated
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Abdominal
cramps
· eadache
· Na:sea
· Fever
· Diarrhea
· Water
· Soil
· Ìnsects
· Animals
· :man
intestinal
tract
· Po:ltry
· Meat
· Fish and
shrimp
· Shell eggs
· Avoid cross-
contamination
· Refrigerate
foods
· ook po:ltry to
165ºF (74º)
for 15 seconds
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
isteriosis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Na:sea
· Vomiting
· Diarrhea
· eadache
· Persistent
Fever
· Backache
· Water
· Soil
· Damp
environments
· :mans
· Animals
· Unpaste:rized
milk & cheese
· Ìce cream
· Frozen Yog:rt
· Raw
vegetables
· Po:ltry and
meats
· Seafood
· Use only
paste:rized
milk and dairy
prod:cts
· ook foods to
proper internal
temperat:res
· Avoid cross-
contamination
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
$taphyIococcaI Food Poisoning
Type of Ìllness: Ìntoxication
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Abdominal
cramps
· Na:sea
· Retching
· Diarrhea
· Skin, hair,
nose, throat
· Ìnfected
sores
· Animals
· Reheated
foods
· am and other
meats
· Po:ltry
· Egg prod:cts
and other
proteins
· Wash hands
· Practice good
personal
hygiene
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
CIostridium perfringens
Type of Ìllness: Toxin-mediated infection
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Abdominal
pain
· Na:sea
· Dehydration
· Diarrhea
· :man
intestinal
tract
· Animals
· ooked meat
· Meat prod:cts
· Po:ltry
· Stew
· Gravy
· Use caref:l
time-
temperat:re
control when
cooling and
reheating
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
otuIism
Type of Ìllness: Ìntoxication
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Ìnitially:
vomiting,
constipation, or
diarrhea
· Later: fatig:e,
weakness,
vertigo, bl:rred
vision
· Animals or
vegetables
· Soil
· Water
· Under-processed
foods
· Temperat:re-
ab:sed stored
foods
· anned low-acid
foods
· Untreated garlic-
and-oil prod:cts
· Don't :se
home-canned
prod:cts
· Use caref:l
time-
temperat:re
control for
sous vide and
b:lky foods
Bacteria Q:ickpoints
coIi 0157:H7 HC
Type of Ìllness: Toxin-mediated infection
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Severe
abdominal
pain
· Vomiting
· Diarrhea
(watery or
bloody)
· :man
intestinal
tract
· Animals
· Ìntestinal
tract of
cattle
· Raw and
:nder-cooked
gro:nd beef
· Ìmported
cheeses
· Unpaste:rized
milk, apple
cider, apple
j:ice
· Thoro:ghly
cook gro:nd
beef to 155
o
F
(68
o
) for 15
seconds
· Avoid cross-
contamination
· Practice good
personal
hygiene
Vir:ses
· an't reprod:ce o:tside a living cell
· Do not req:ire a PF to be
transmitted
· Us:ally contaminate food thro:gh
poor personal hygiene
· May s:rvive freezing and cooking
· ontaminate food and water
Vir:ses
· epatitis A
· Norwalk Vir:s Gastroenteritis
· Rotavir:s Gastroenteritis
Major Foodborne IIInesses Caused by
Viruses
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· S:dden onset
of fever
· General
discomfort
· Fatig:e
· eadache
· Na:sea
· :man
intestinal and
:rinary
tract
· ontaminated
water
· Water and
ice
· Shellfish
· Salads
· old c:ts and
sandwiches
· Fr:its and fr:it
j:ices
· Obtain shellfish
from approved
so:rces
· Prevent hands
from cross-
contamination
· Ens:re that food
handlers practice
good personal
hygiene
Vir:s Q:ickpoints
Hepatitis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Na:sea
· Vomiting
· Diarrhea
· Abdominal
cramps
· :man
intestinal
tract
· ontaminated
water
· Water
· Shellfish (raw
or steamed)
· Raw
vegetables
· Fresh fr:its
and salads
· Obtain shellfish from
approved so:rces
· Prevent hands from
cross-contamination
· Ens:re that food
handlers practice
good personal
hygiene
· ook foods to
minim:m safe
internal
temperat:res
Vir:s Q:ickpoints
NorwaIk Virus Gastroenteritis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection
Parasites
Need to live in or on a host organism
in order to s:rvive
Host
!erson Animal !lant
Parasites
eys to Prevention
· Freeze properly
· ook to proper temperat:res
· Avoid cross-contamination
· Use sanitary water s:pplies
· Wash hands properly
Parasites
Major Foodborne IIInesses Caused
by Parasites
· Trichinosis
· Anisakiasis
· Giardiasis
· Toxoplasmosis
· Ìntestinal ryptosporidiosis
· yclosporiasis
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Na:sea
· Diarrhea
· Abdominal
pain
· Vomiting
(occasionally)
· Swelling
aro:nd eyes
· Domestic pigs
· Wild game
· Undercooked
pork and wild
game
· Sa:sages
· ook pork and
other meats to
minim:m internal
cooking
temperat:res
Parasite Q:ickpoints
Trichinosis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection
Symptoms Sources oods Prevention
Involved
· Tingling or
tickling
sensation in
throat
· Vomiting or
co:ghing :p
worms
· Marine fish
(especially
bottom
feeders)
· Raw,
:ndercooked, or
improperly
frozen seafood,
especially cod,
haddock, fl:ke,
pacific salmon,
herring, flo:nder,
monkfish, or fish
:sed in s:shi and
sashimi
· Obtain seafood
from rep:table
so:rces
· Freeze fish
properly
· Avoid eating raw
or partially
cooked fish and
shellfish
Parasite Q:ickpoints
nisakiasis
Type of Ìllness: Ìnfection
F:ngi
ommonly ca:se food spoilage, not illness
Fungi
olds Yeast ushrooms
lassifying Foodborne Ìllness
Foodborne Infections
#esult when pathogens grow in intestines after a
person eats food contaminated by them
Foodborne Intoxications
#esult from eating food containing poisonous
toxins
Foodborne Toxin-Mediated Infections
#esult growing from toxins produced by the
pathogens growing in the intestines
Apply Yo:r nowledge
!repare an outline for a discussion of the four
types of microorganisms. Include examples of
what microorganisms need to survive and
grow. Highlight the conditions managers have
the most influence over.
eeping Food Safe in Storage
Storage Safety
eeping Food
Safe in Storage
Label
Prevent ross-
ontamination
Proper
Temperat:re
FÌFO
Storage G:idelines
· Use First Ìn First O:t
(FÌFO)
· Prevent cross-
contamination
· heck food and
storage
temperat:res
· Wrap and label
foods
· eep areas clean
and dry
· Don't overload
· Store food in
designated areas
· Discard potentially
hazardo:s foods
within seven days
Types of Storage
· Refrigerated
· Frozen
· Deep hill
· Dry
· leaning s:pplies and chemicals
old Storage Temperat:res
Food Temperature
Meat, Po:ltry, Fish, Eggs,
Dairy
41ºF (5º) or lower
Live Shellfish and
r:staceans
45ºF (7º) or lower
Prod:ce Storage temperat:res
vary
anned/Fry Foods 50ºF to 70ºF (10º to
21º)
Vac::m packed, plastic
po:ch
40ºF (5º) or lower or as
per man:fact:rer
Refrigerator Storage
· Separately from
cooked/ready-to-eat
foods
· Below ready-to-
eat/prepared foods
· As indicated in
ill:stration
$tore raw meats
hemicals/leaning S:pplies
$tore ChemicaIs and CIeaning $uppIies
way from Food $torage and
Preparation reas
Apply Yo:r nowledge
hat steps should be taken if a raw food has
dripped into a ready-to-eat/cooked product?
hat steps could have been taken to avoid
this?
Protecting Food D:ring
Preparation
Safe Foodhandling
· Preparation
· ooking
· ooling
· Reheating
It is your responsibiIity to handIe
food safeIy during
Temperat:re Ab:se
Temperature abuse is a major cause of
foodborne iIIness outbreaks
Fo:r-o:r R:le
Four-Hour RuIe
· Never let food remain in the temperat:re
danger zone for more than fo:r ho:rs
xposure Time
· Acc:m:lates from receiving thro:gh cooking
· Begins again when food is held, cooled, and
reheated
ross-ontamination (1)
· Prepare raw meat separately from
cooked/ready-to-eat foods
· Assign specific eq:ipment for each food
· Use specific containers for each food
· lean and sanitize food-contact s:rfaces
after each task
Methods for Preventing Cross-
Contamination During Preparation
ross-ontamination (2)
· Use disposable or color-coded cleaning
cloths
· onsider :sing gloves for food preparation
and service
· Practice good personal hygiene
Methods for Preventing Cross-
Contamination During Preparation
Thawing Foods Properly
· Under refrigeration at 40ºF (5º) or less
· D:ring s:bmersion in r:nning potable
water at 70ºF (21º)
· Ìn the microwave, if cooked immediately
· As part of the cooking process; ens:re
minim:m internal temperat:re
Foods shouId be thawed
ey Preparation Practices
· Prepare food in small batches
· Store prepared foods q:ickly
· hill ingredients prior to :se
· Use properly cooked/cooled leftover
meats
· eep shell eggs at 40ºF (5º) or below
:ntil :se
· Wash fr:its/vegetables before
c:tting,combining, and cooking
ooking Foods
· ooking food to req:ire minim:m internal
temperat:res kills microorganisms
· ooking will not destroy spores or toxins
· Using a thermometer will determine that
food has been cooked properly
· ooking is a critical control point for most
foods
ooking Foods
Minimum $afe InternaI Cooking Temps
Product Temperature
Po:ltry, st:ffing, st:ffed meats, st:ffed pasta,
casseroles, field-dressed game
165ºF (74º) for 15 seconds
Pork, ham, bacon, injected meats
145ºF (63º) for 15 seconds
Gro:nd or flaked meats incl:ding hamb:rger, gro:nd
pork, flaked fish, gro:nd game animals, sa:sage,
gyros
155ºF (69º) for 15 seconds
Beef and pork roasts (rare)
145ºF (63º) for 3 min:tes
Beef steaks, veal, lamb, commercially raised game
animals
145ºF (63º) for 15 seconds
Fish
145ºF (63º) for 15 seconds
Shell eggs for immediate service
145ºF (63º) for 15 seconds
Any potentially hazardo:s food cooked in a
microwave oven
165ºF (74º); let food stand
for 2 min:tes after cooking
ooling Foods
One-$tage (Four-Hour) Method
· ool food from 140ºF to 41ºF (60º to
5º or lower within fo:r ho:rs
Two-$tage Method
· ool food from 140ºF to 70ºF (60º to
21º within two ho:rs, and to 41ºF
(5º) or lower in an additional fo:r
ho:rs
Safe Methods for ooling
Blast chiller
Red:ce portion size
Shallow pans
Ìce-water bath
Reheating
Reheating PotentiaIIy Hazardous
Foods for Hot HoIding
· Reheat food to an internal temperat:re
of 165ºF (74º) for fifteen seconds
within two ho:rs
Protecting Food D:ring
Service
Protecting Food
Time &
Temperat:re
ross-
ontamination
olding Foods for Service
· eep cold foods cold and hot foods hot
· Meas:re internal temperat:res at least
every two ho:rs
· hoose food safety over food q:ality
hen HoIding Foods
olding Foods for Service
· Never :se hot-holding eq:ipment to reheat foods
· ot-holding eq:ipment m:st keep foods at 140ºF
(60º) or higher
· Stir at reg:lar intervals
· eep foods covered
· Meas:re internal temperat:res at least every two
ho:rs
· Discard food after fo:r ho:rs if not held at or above
140ºF (60º)
· Never mix fresh food with food being held
· Prepare in small batches
old-olding G:idelines
· old-holding eq:ipment m:st keep food at
40ºF (5º) or lower
· Do not store directly on ice
· Meas:re internal temperat:re at least every
two ho:rs
· eep foods covered
R:les for Food Bars
· Monitor the food bar
· Ìnstall sneeze g:ards or food shields
· Label food items
· Maintain proper temperat:res
· Never mix fresh food with food being
replaced
· Separate raw foods from cooked and
ready-to-eat foods
· Seniors are req:ired to :se a clean plate
on ret:rn trips
Off-Site Services
MobiIe, Temporary itchens, Vending,
Catering
· Use eq:ipment designed to maintain safe
temperat:res
· lean and sanitize delivery vehicles
· Practice good personal hygiene
· heck internal food temperat:re reg:larly
· Label foods with instr:ctions
· Provide safety g:idelines for cons:mers
Safe Foodhandling
· Practice strict personal hygiene
· Monitor time and temperat:re
· eep raw prod:cts and ready-to-eat foods separate
· Avoid cross-contamination d:ring handling
· ook to req:ired minimal internal temperat:res
· old hot foods at 140ºF (60º) or above; cold foods
at 41ºF (5º) or below
· ool cooked foods properly
· Reheat to internal temperat:re of 165ºF (74º) for 15
seconds within two ho:rs
The Safe Foodhandler
The Safe Foodhandler
Practices
and
ygiene
eeps
Self lean
Avoids
Unsanitary
abits at
Work
Stays
ealthy
%he Safe
Foodhandler
Wears
lean,
Appropriate
lothing
Reports
Ìllness
The Unsafe Foodhandler
· Diagnosed with a foodborne Ìllness
· Show symptoms of gastrointestinal illness
· ave infected lesions
· Exposed to an ill person
· To:ch anything that may contaminate their
hands
How FoodhandIers Contaminate Food
Proper andwashing
Proper Handwashing Procedure
1. Wet yo:r hands with hot r:nning water
2. Apply soap
3. R:b hands together for at least twenty
seconds
4. lean :nder fingernails and between fingers
5. Rinse hands thoro:ghly :nder r:nning water
6. Dry hands
Proper andwashing
· Using the restroom
· andling raw foods
· To:ching hair or
body
· Sneezing, co:ghing,
:sing handkerchief
· Smoking, eating,
drinking, chewing
tobacco or g:m
· Using chemicals
· andling garbage
· learing tables or
b:sing dirty dishes
· To:ching aprons or
clothing
· To:ching other
:nsanitized s:rfaces
ash hands after
Glove Use
· As soon as they become soiled
· Before beginning a different task
· At least every fo:r ho:rs d:ring contin:al
:se
· After handling raw meat and before handling
cooked or ready-to-eat foods
hen to Change GIoves
Proper/Ìmproper Attire
Proper Improper
· air restrained
· lean, short
fingernails, no
jewelry or nail polish
· Apron clean
· air not restrained
· Long fingernails,
jewelry, nail polish
· Apron dirty and
stained
Ìmproper Service
Ìllness and Ìnj:ry
· Bandage and cover c:ts, b:rns, sores, and
skin infections
· Excl:de foodhandlers diagnosed with a
foodborne illness from the establishment
· Excl:de foodhandlers from working with or
aro:nd food if the have the following
symptoms:
HandIing IIIness and Injury
÷ Fever
÷ Diarrhea
÷ Vomiting
÷ Sore throat
÷ Ja:ndice
Management's Role
· Model proper behavior
· Establish proper policies
· Train food handlers
· ontin:e s:pervision and monitoring
· Remind and retrain

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