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Graph Theory & its application

Presented by Jit Saha M.Tech CSE 1st year

03/05/12

jit saha-KGEC

Content
1. 2. 3. 4. History of graph theory Elementary concepts Applications Reference

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jit saha-KGEC

1.History of graph theory


Leonhard Euler's paper on Seven Bridges of Knigsberg , published in 1736.

walk about the city so ,cross each bridge once & return to the starting point.
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1.History of graph theory-contd


Cycles in Polyhedra

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1.History of graph theory-contd


Four Colors of Maps

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2.Elementary concepts
G(V,E) ,two sets of objects
Vertices (or nodes) ,set V Edges, set E

Represented with circles joined by lines |V|=order of graph |E|=size of graph

For the above simple directed graph, V={A,B,C,D} E={AB,BD,CD,AC,AD,BC} |V|=4 |E|=6 Content

03/05/12

jit saha-KGEC

3.Applications
I. Computer Science II. Chemistry III. Operation Research IV. Biological science V. Other application

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I. Computer Science
Data structure & Algorithm design Operating system DBMS Compiler design Computer networking & network security
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Application
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Data structure & Algorithm design


Serve as data structure Foundation of different algorithm Performance measurement
Time complexity Space complexity

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Application
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Operating system
Modeling operating system Defining file structure Deadlock handling Defining storage structure Process scheduling
Content Application
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operating system-contd

Content Application
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DBMS
Defining relation model ER diagram designing SQL Query optimization Transaction processing
Precedence graph

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Application
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Compiler design
Syntax tree construction Semantic checking Code optimization
By DAG

Graph coloring in register optimization


Content Application
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Compiler design-contd
d=a+b f=b/c g=a+b f=c+d d=f+c
DAG representation

Graph coloring in register allocation


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Application
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computer networking & network securuty


Defining n/w topology path costs computation
Routing protocols use shortest path algorithms

In multicast routing protocol


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Application
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computer networking & network securutycontd


simulate propagation of worms
vertices are routing servers edges are the links Basec on minimum vertex cover property

finding the worm propagation

vertex Set g={2,4,5} covers all the vertices in G Content

Application
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Other Computer Science application


Search engine optimization Parallel algorithm solving software Engineering FSM model Computer architecture
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application
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II. Chemistry
Structural representation of molecule Enumeration Chemical Isomers acyclic compounds are trees

Content application
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III. Operation research


Solving LPP by graphical method Estimating project activity
PERT & CPM

In Game Theory
Using tree

content application
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III. Operation research-contd

content Game tree structure


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Pert &CPM

application
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IV. Biological Science


statistical theory of biological networks In DNA Sequencing
ATC TCG CAT GCA GGC GGC AGG GAA CGA GAC

Example -ATCGACTATAAGGC ATCGAA


ACT
CTA

TAT

ATA TAA AAG

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IV. Biological Science-contd


Spread and Control of Disease through Social Networks
Social Network = Graph Vertices = People Edges = contact
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application
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V. Other application
Utilities problem Electrical network problem Bus-trail network Pedigree(family tree) Telephone network systems
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application
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4. Reference
Books
Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer Science by Narsingh Deo Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications by Kenneth H. Rose

URL

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graph_theory http://mathworld.wolfram.com/GraphTheory.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/242012/graph-theory

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