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Advanced Computer Network

Advanced Computer Network

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Published by Ashwin Kumar

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Published by: Ashwin Kumar on Aug 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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KUVEMPU UNIVERSITY 6SemesterSample Paper
1.a) Discuss architecture of WWW.Ans:
WWW stands for World Wide Web. It is an architectural framework for accessing linkeddocuments.Following points describe about the architecture of WWW:-i)Form user point of view, www is the collection of web pages or simply pages. Each pagecontain links to other pages which may be present elsewhere on machines in the internet.ii) The idea of one page pointing to another one is called hypertext.iii) Pages are viewed with a program called browser, which fetches the requested pages, formatsand display them.iv) On a web page, string of texts which is underlined are link to other pages. These are calledhyperlinks.v) Pages fetching is done by the browser.Entire process of obtaining the web pages on the client machine divided into majorprocesses:-a) The dynamics happening on the client machine.b) The dynamics happening on the server machine.
b) Explain client side and server side operations.Ans:
Client Side Operation:-
In Client Side operation, browse follows the hyperlinks on the webpages, so its need a way to name the pages on other machine in the web. Web pages are namedusing URL which has three part Name of protocol, DNS name of the machine where the page islocated, and Name of the file containing the page.When a hyperlink is clicked:--
The browser locates the URL and asks DNS for IP address.
When DNS replies with IP address browser makes TCP connection to port 80 onthe machine and sends a request for the required file.
The server sends the required file and TCP connection has closed.
Browser displays all text file info, images and other information.
Server Side Operation
:- In server side operation, when URL is clicked the server offersfollowing operations:-
Accept a TCP connection from a client.
Get the name of the file requested disk.
Get the file from the disk.
Return the file to the client.
Release the TCP connection.
2. a) Explain different forms of routing.Ans:
Different forms of Routing:- i) Next-hop routing:- The technique to make the content of routing table smaller is called next-hop routing. In this, the routing table holds only the addressof the next hop instead of holding information about the complete route.ii) Network-specific routing:- It makes the routing table smaller and searching process simpler.In this, routing tables contain only one entry for define the address of all host connected withsame physical network instead of an entry for each host.iii) Host-specific routing:- This is the inverse of network-specific routing. In this, the hostaddress is given in the routing table and it also contains specific entry for each host. But it isgood for certain purpose such as the route or providing security measure.iv) Default routing:- Default routing is a routing technique that used a default network address toroute the packets to host connected to the network.
3. a) Explain the BGP protocol in detail.
National ISP (IBGP)AS3
The Border Gateway Protocol is a inter autonomous system (AS) routing protocol. BGP isused to exchange routing information for the internet and is the protocol used between ISP.Customers connect to ISPs, and ISPs use BGP to exchange customer and ISP route. When BGP
is used between AS, the protocol is referred as External BGP (EBGP). If ISP is using BGP toexchange routes within an AS, the protocol is called Interior BGP.Regional ISPAS2Customer3Customer4Regional ISPAS1customer1Customer2BGP is very robust and scalable routing protocol. To achieve scalability BGP uses someattributes.a) Weight:- Weight is a Cisco defined attribute that is local to a router. This is not advertised toneighboring routers. If the router learns about more than one route to the same destination, theroute with the highest weight will be preferred.b) Local preference: - This attribute is used to prefer an exit point the local AS. The localpreference attribute is propagated throughout the local AS. If there are multiple exit points fromthe AS, the local preference attribute is used to select the exit point for a specific route.c) Multi-exit discriminator:- The multi-exit discriminator (MED) is used as a suggestion to anexternal AS regarding the preferred route into the AS that is advertising the metric.d) Origin:- This indicates how BGP learned about a particular route. The origin attribute canhave three possible values.i) IGP: The route is interior to the originating AS.

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