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Sewage n Sludge

Sewage n Sludge



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Published by akhilt29

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Published by: akhilt29 on Jan 28, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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What are biosolids?
 Biosolids are treated sewage sludges. Sewage sludge is the solids that are collected from thewastewater treatment process but which have not undergone further treatment. Sludge normallycontains up to around 3 % solids. Biosolids are a product of the sewage sludge once it has undergonefurther treatment to reduce disease causing pathogens and volatile organic matter significantly,producing a stabilised product suitable for beneficial use. Biosolids, normally contain between 15 % to90 % solids. Biosolids are carefully treated and monitored and they must be used in accordance withregulatory requirements. 
What is in biosolids?
 Biosolids are mainly a mix of water and organic materials that are a by-product of the sewagetreatment processes. Most wastewater comes from household, kitchens, laundries and bathrooms.Biosolids may contain:
Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur and
Micronutrients, such as copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, boron, molybdenum andmanganeseBiosolids may also contain traces of synthetic organic compounds and metals, including arsenic,cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and selenium. These contaminants limit the uses to whichbiosolids can be put, with all applications regulated by appropriate government authorities in eachState and federally. Australia has one of the strictest regulatory regimes for biosolids application anduse in the world. 
What are Biosolids used for?
 Biosolids can be applied as a fertiliser to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plantgrowth. They are also used to fertilise gardens and parks and reclaim mining sites.In Australia and New Zealand, biosolids have been used for:
Co-generation/power production/energy recover
Land application in agriculture (vine, cereal, pasture, olive)
road base
Land application in forestry operations
Land rehabilitation (including landfill capping)
Landscaping and topsoil
Oil from sludge (experimental).
Other uses overseas include:
Bricks and construction material
Vitrification (glass manufacture)
Fuel substitute (cement works)
Additive to road base
JewelleryBiosolids are graded according to chemical composition and the level of pathogens remaining afterproduction. Not all biosolids can be used for all applications. Lower qualities are typically used forroad based and mine site rehabilitation. Only the highest grade of biosolids can be used to grow cropsfor human consumption. Regulators, such as State departments of Health and Environment strictlycontrol the application, production and quality of biosolids. 
How are biosolids made?
What you flush down the toilet and plug-holes in your house eventually requires treatment at a sewagetreatment plant. A typical sewage treatment plant uses a range of treatment processes to producerecycled water and biosolids.
Figure 1 Processes in a typical wastewater (sewage) treatment plant which produce wastewatersludge for processing into biosolids
Biosolids are produced primarily from the treatment of sewage. Sewage consists of used water fromhousehold activities such as washing dishes and clothes, taking a shower, flushing the toilet and evencleaning your teeth.Industry also discharges into the sewerage system. This discharge is usually regulated and limits are setso that any potentially dangerous compounds are not allowed in the sewer at levels that might causeharm to the environment or people.During sewage treatment, microorganisms digest (eat) the sewage, completely breaking down theoriginal organic solids that have been discharged into the sewerage system. Throughout the sewagetreatment process, microorganisms digest the sewage, completely breaking down the original organicsolids that have been discharged into the sewerage system leaving a low solids effluent and a solidscomponent known as biosolids. The water content of the solids is then reduced, usually by passingthrough mechanical processes. The resultant product is biosolids.Biosolids comprise dead micro-organisms, a small portion of active microorganisms, and any inert solidssuch as sand which have come down the sewer.The final quality of the biosolids produced depends on the quality of the sewage entering thetreatment plant and the treatment process. Strict state and national guidelinesin Australia and New Zealand specify the allowed uses of specific biosolids. Australia and New Zealand water industries usesome of the most advanced wastewater treatment and biosolids production technology and qualityassurance programs in the world to ensure the safe and sustainable management of biosolids.See Fig. 1 on sewage above, and the more detailed Fig. 2 below on different methods for production of biosolids.

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