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Ch7 Clouds-Aerosols WG1AR5 SOD Ch07 All Final

Ch7 Clouds-Aerosols WG1AR5 SOD Ch07 All Final

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The Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report presents new evidence of past and projected future climate change from many independent scientific studies ranging from observations of the climate system, paleoclimate archives, theoretical studies on climate processes and simulations using climate models.
The Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report presents new evidence of past and projected future climate change from many independent scientific studies ranging from observations of the climate system, paleoclimate archives, theoretical studies on climate processes and simulations using climate models.

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Second Order Draft Chapter 7 IPCC WGI Fifth Assessment Report
Do Not Cite, Quote or Distribute
7-1 Total pages: 139
1
Chapter 7: Clouds and Aerosols
23
Coordinating Lead Authors:
Olivier Boucher (France), David Randall (USA)
45
Lead Authors
: Paulo Artaxo (Brazil), Christopher Bretherton (USA), Graham Feingold (USA), Piers
6
Forster (UK), Veli-Matti Kerminen (Finland), Yutaka Kondo (Japan), Hong Liao (China), Ulrike Lohmann
7
(Switzerland), Philip Rasch (USA), S. K. Satheesh (India), Steven Sherwood (Australia), Bjorn Stevens
8
(Germany), Xiao-Ye Zhang (China)
910
Contributing Authors
: Govindswamy Bala (India), Nicolas Bellouin (UK), Angela Benedetti (UK),
11
Sandrine Bony (France), Ken Caldeira (USA), Antony Del Genio (USA), Maria Cristina Facchini (Italy),
12
Mark Flanner (USA), Steven Ghan (USA), Claire Granier (France), Corinna Hoose (Germany), Andy Jones
13
(UK), Makoto Koike (Japan), Ben Kravitz (USA), Ben Laken (Spain), Matthew Lebsock (USA), Natalie
14
Mahowald (USA), Gunnar Myhre (Norway), Colin O'Dowd (Ireland), Alan Robock (USA), Bjørn Samset
15
(Norway), Hauke Schmidt (Germany), Michael Schulz (Norway), Graeme Stephens (USA), Trude
16
Storelvmo (USA), Dave Winker (USA), Matthew Wyant (USA)
1718
Review Editors:
Sandro Fuzzi (Italy), Joyce Penner (USA), Venkatachalam Ramaswamy (USA), Claudia
19
Stubenrauch (France)
2021
Date of Draft:
5 October 2012
2223
Notes:
TSU Compiled Version
242526
Table of Contents
 
2728
Executive Summary..........................................................................................................................................3
29
7.1
Introduction..............................................................................................................................................7
30
7.2
Clouds........................................................................................................................................................8
31
7.2.1
Clouds in the Present-Day Climate System....................................................................................8
32
7.2.2
Cloud Processes...........................................................................................................................10
33
7.2.3
 Parameterization of Clouds in Climate Models...........................................................................13
34
7.2.4
Cloud, Water-Vapour and Lapse Rate Feedbacks.......................................................................15
35
7.2.5
 Anthropogenic Sources of Moisture and Cloudiness...................................................................23
36
7.3
Aerosols...................................................................................................................................................24
37
7.3.1
 Aerosols in the Present-Day Climate System...............................................................................24
38
7.3.2
 Aerosol Sources and Processes....................................................................................................26 
39
7.3.3
 Progresses and Gaps in Understanding Climate Relevant Aerosol Properties...........................28
40
7.3.4
 Aerosol-Radiation Interactions (ARI)..........................................................................................31
41
7.3.5
 Aerosol Responses to Climate Change and Feedback.................................................................33
42
7.4
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions....................................................................................................................34
43
7.4.1
 Introduction..................................................................................................................................34
44
7.4.2
 Radiative Forcing due to Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (RFaci)...................................................37 
45
7.4.3
 Forcing Associated with Adjustments in Liquid Clouds (AFaci).................................................38
46
7.4.4
 Adjustments in Cold Clouds.........................................................................................................40
47
7.4.5
 Impact of Cosmic Rays on Aerosols and Clouds..........................................................................42
48
7.5
Radiative Forcing and Adjusted Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols..............................................44
49
7.5.1
 Estimates of RF and AF from Aerosol-Radiation Interactions (RFari and AFari).....................44
50
7.5.2
 Estimates of RF and AF from Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (RFaci and AFaci)...........................47 
51
7.5.3
 Estimates of AF from Combined Aerosol-Radiation and Aerosol-Cloud Interactions
52
(AFari+aci)..................................................................................................................................48
53
7.6
Links to Precipitation.............................................................................................................................50
54
7.6.1
 Introduction..................................................................................................................................50
55
7.6.2
The Effects of Global Warming on Large Scale Precipitation Trends........................................50
56
7.6.3
 Radiative Forcing of the Hydrological Cycle..............................................................................51
57
 
Second Order Draft Chapter 7 IPCC WGI Fifth Assessment Report
Do Not Cite, Quote or Distribute
7-2 Total pages: 139
7.6.4
 Aerosol-Cloud Interactions..........................................................................................................52
1
7.6.5
The Physical Basis for Changes in Precipitation Extremes.........................................................53
2
7.7
Solar Radiation Management and Related Techniques......................................................................53
3
7.7.1
 Introduction..................................................................................................................................53
4
7.7.2
 Assessment of Proposed SRM Methods........................................................................................53
5
7.7.3
Climate Response to SRM Methods.............................................................................................56 
6
7.7.4
Synthesis.......................................................................................................................................57 
7
FAQ 7.1: How do Clouds Affect Climate and Climate Change?...............................................................58
8
FAQ 7.2: How do Aerosols Affect Climate and Climate Change?.............................................................59
9
FAQ 7.3: Could Geoengineering Counteract Climate Change and What Side Effects Might Occur?..60
10
References........................................................................................................................................................64
11
Tables.............................................................................................................................................................107
12
Figures...........................................................................................................................................................111
1314
 
Second Order Draft Chapter 7 IPCC WGI Fifth Assessment Report
Do Not Cite, Quote or Distribute
7-3 Total pages: 139
Executive Summary
12
A new framework is used, which separates forcing (instantaneous change in the radiative budget) and
3
rapid adjustments (which modify the radiative budget indirectly through fast atmospheric and surface
4
changes) from feedbacks (which operate through changes in climate variables that are mediated by a
5
change in surface temperature).
This framework offers a clear distinction between the traditional concept
6
of radiative forcing (RF) and the relatively new concept of adjusted forcing (AF). For aerosols one can
7
further distinguish forcing processes arising from aerosol-radiation interactions (ari) and aerosol-cloud
8
interactions (aci). [7.1, Figures 7.1 and 7.2]
 
910
Clouds exert an average cooling influence on Earth, of about
17 W m
 –2
.
This is the net result of a
11
greenhouse (infrared) warming due mainly to high clouds (about +30 W m
 –2
) and a cooling effect from
12
reflecting solar radiation contributed by all cloud types (about
47 W m
 –2
). This result is not new since AR4,
13
 but the important role of clouds in redistributing radiative fluxes vertically within the atmosphere is now
14
 better quantified. [7.2.1, 7.2.2, Figure 7.6]
1516
The net “clear-sky” feedback from water vapour and lapse rate changes together is
very likely
positive,
17
that is, amplifies global climate changes
. We estimate a
very likely
(90%) range
1
for this feedback 
18
 parameter, as traditionally defined, of 1.09 (0.91 to 1.27) W m
2
1
. The mean value and spread in climate
19
models are essentially unchanged from AR4, but are now supported by stronger observational evidence and
20
 better process understanding of what determines relative humidity distributions. However the traditional
21
view of a weak inherent climate sensitivity boosted by strong positive feedback from water vapour depends
22
on the analysis framework; a valid alternative yields stronger intrinsic sensitivity, with a weak net clear-sky
23
feedback. [7.2.4, Figure 7.8]
2425
The net radiative feedback due to all cloud types is
likely
(>66% chance) positive
, although a negative
26
feedback (damping global climate changes) is still possible. We assign a
very likely
range of 
0.2 to 1.4 W
27
m
 –2
 –1
for the cloud feedback parameter. This conclusion is reached by considering a plausible range for 
28
unknown contributions by processes yet to be accounted for, in addition to those occurring in current climate
29
models. The cloud feedback remains the most uncertain radiative feedback in climate models. Observations
30
alone do not currently provide a robust, direct constraint, but multiple lines of evidence now indicate positive
31
feedback contributions from changes in both the height of high clouds and the horizontal distribution of 
32
clouds. Additional feedback from low cloud amount is also positive in most climate models, but that result is
33
not well understood, nor effectively constrained by observations, so confidence in it is low. [7.2.4, Figures
34
7.9-7.10]
3536
Persistent contrails from aviation contribute a RF of +0.02 (+0.01 to +0.03) W m
 –2
for year 2010, and
37
the combined contrail and contrail-cirrus AF from aviation is assessed to be +0.05 (+0.02 to +0.15) W
38
m
 –2
. This forcing can be much larger regionally but is very unlikely to produce observable regional effects
39
on either the mean or diurnal range of surface temperature. [7.2.5]
4041
Climate-relevant aerosol properties result from aerosol sources and a number of atmospheric
42
processes, which are considerably better understood than at time of the last IPCC assessment, but the
43
representation of these processes varies greatly in global models.
For instance, the importance of new
44
 particle formation, the role of organics, and how mixing increases aerosol mass absorption efficiency are
45
 better appreciated. However, it remains unclear what level of sophistication in global aerosol and climate
46
models is required to estimate aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions to a sufficient accuracy.
47
[7.3.1, 7.3.2, 7.3.3, Figures 7.11-7.14]
4849
Aerosol-radiation interactions result in rapid adjustments, which affect the stability of the atmosphere
50
and cause changes in cloud dynamics that are distinct from any aerosol-cloud interaction
. Observations
51
and detailed large eddy simulations show cloud cover decreases with absorbing aerosol embedded in the
52
cloud layer, and increases when aerosols are above cloud. There is however limited evidence to gauge the
53
relative importance of these two effects at the global scale. [7.3.4]
54
1
Unless specified otherwise, all ranges for forcing and feedback parameters are 5 to 95% uncertainty intervals.

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