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Peppers

Peppers

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Published by: Farhat Abbas Durrani on Dec 28, 2012
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08/25/2013

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19
2008 Ohio Vegetable Production Guide 
Peppers
Peppers
Culture
Peppers are a warm-season crop, being sensitive to cold weather. ransplants normally are set in the eld aer thedanger o rost. Te sweet bell pepper is the most popular type; i allowed to ripen, the ruit turns red, orange, creamyellow or purple depending on cultivar, and remains sweet. In certain areas, red peppers are sought in the marketplace.Hot peppers are always pungent and vary in shape, color and degree o pungency.Pepper seeds germinate best at 85-90°F. Seedlings develop best at 75°F during the day and 65°F at night.o avoid transplant shock, harden the plants by only slightly reducing water and temperature, and increase the airmovement to get them used to eld conditions. Overhardened plants are slow to take o and can result in reduced yields.When setting transplants, be sure to use a starter ertilizer that is high in phosphorus.o reduce the loss o ruit set: (1) select varieties reported to set under unavorable conditions, (2) keep growth pro-gressing uniormly, (3) do not eld set too early and (4) meter the ertilizer.Some resh-market growers have signicantly increased yields by planting double rows on black plastic mulch, withtrickle irrigation laid under the plastic. Tis provides uniorm moisture and ertility during the growing season. Also,extra magnesium and calcium nitrate can be added through the drip tubes.Poor ruit set occurs when night temperatures are below 60°F or above 75°F. Daytime temperatures much higherthan 90°F also cause pollen sterility.
Varieties
Bell types Thin-walled types
Aristotle Cubanelle (rying)Paladin (phytophthora blight resistance) Italian Sweet (rying)Revolution Banana SupremeKarma (trial) Sweet SetBrigadier (trial)CollosalX3R Wizard
Hot
Camelot Hungarian Yellow WaxLaayette Large Red Cherry Merlin Hot PortugalOlympus Mitla (Jalapena)Orion Jalapeno MSentry Melody (hal long)Mayata (long)Sunbell
Processing types (red bell)
North StarCardinalGalaxy (trial-long season)Merlin
Lime and Fertilizer
Maintain a soil pH between 6.0-6.8.Peppers do best on a riable, well-drained, warm soil. Acid soils lead to problems such as calcium deciency, blos-som end rot and magnesium deciency. Peppers do not require high soil ertility, but they also should not be starved.Tey need a constant supply o nutrients throughout the growing season. Fertilization too early results in excessive vinegrowth and limited ruit production.
 
196
2008 Ohio Vegetable Production Guide 
Peppers
Te total recommended nitrogen is 100-130 lb/A. Phosphorus and potassium are applied according to soil test. Ap-ply 2/3 o the ertilizer prior to planting. Some o this nitrogen can be applied in two or three sidedressings that shouldbegin 2-3 weeks aer transplanting.For unusually long seasons and/or with leaching rains, additional sidedressings o N may be needed to keep plantsproducing ruit. Be sure to use a starter ertilizer, such as 10-34-0, 10-52-17 or 18-46-0, at transplanting. Starters providephosphorus, which helps in early owering and greater yields.
Spacing and Seeding
Rows: 3-4  apart.In-row: plants spaced 12-18 inches.Many growers are now planting staggered double rows on black plastic mulch. Te spacing between the plants is12-18 inches with row centers 5  apart.
Harvest
Bell peppers are harvested in the immature green stage aer they have reached ull size and arrive at maximumwall thickness. Use a pulling, twisting motion so the remaining plant is not broken. Average yields range rom 400-800bu/A.Peppers can be brushed or washed beore packing. I ruits are washed, they must be dried completely to avoid sorot aer packing. Waxed cardboard boxes with the arm name on the side are becoming more popular than wireboundcrates. A typical box contains 25 lb o peppers.
Disease Control
Damping off
Buy seed commercially treated with ungicide(s). I Pythium has been a problem, apply 
RidomilGold
EC at 1 pt/treated A to soil at planting. (See label directions.)
Mosaic Viruses (CMV and TMV)
Cucumber mosaic virus is spread by aphids rom diseased perennial weeds, tomatoes, cucumbers, squash or melons.Eliminate weeds, especially pokeweed, or 150  around pepper plantings. Some varieties are reported to have someresistance to tobacco mosaic virus.
Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
Tis virus is carried by thrips and can cause major losses to peppers and tomatoes i the virus inects young plants. I southern-grown transplants are used, growers should be certain they are rom inspected elds. Northern-grown trans-plants should be grown in isolation rom ornamental crops. Control o thrips may slow spread o virus in the eld andgreenhouse. (Use insecticides labeled or thrips in the insect control portion o the processing tomato section. Monitor4L listed in the tomato section is not labeled or peppers. Check label rates and days to harvest because dierences oc-cur between tomatoes and peppers.)
Bacterial Spot
Plant only disease-ree seed or transplants. Te bacterial spot bacteria can be removed rom seed lots with bleachtreatment (see Seed reatment). Use pepper varieties resistant to bacterial lea spot races 1, 2 and 3. Examples includeAdmiral, Aladdin X3R, Alliance, Aristotle X3R, Boynton Bell, Brigadier, Camelot, Enterprise, Orion, Red Knight,Socrates, Wizard, Yorktown (bell); Pageant, Sweet Spot, Ihlara (banana); Key West (cubanelle); Agriset 4108, El Jee,El Rey, Sayula, ormenta (jalapeno).Southern-grown transplants must be certied disease-ree. Bacterial spot overwinters in soil; ollow proper seed bedand eld sanitation practices, and plow down residues immediately ollowing harvest.I disease threatens, spray weekly with xed copper (0 days-PHI) according to label directions or tank mix xedcopper (1 lb a.i./A) and
Maneb
75DF or 80W (1.5 lb/A) or
anos
(8-10 oz/A) and spray every 7-10 days.
 
197
2008 Ohio Vegetable Production Guide 
Peppers
Phytophthora Blight
Plant in beds (4-7 inches high) on well-drained soils. Surace drainage is essential or control. Do not rotate with any other solanaceous or vine crops within 2 years. Use a phytophthora-resistant variety such as Paladin, Revolution, Alli-ance, or Aristotle. Tese varieties are resistant to the crown rot phase o the disease, and ungicides should be appliedto reduce the oliar phase under avorable (hot, rainy) conditions. Apply 
*RidomilGold
EC at 1 pt/A to soil at plantingand apply twice with spray directed to base o plants at 30-day intervals. See label directions. o suppress the oliar andruit rot phase, apply xed copper (2 lb 77WP/A on a 7-10 day interval,
*Ridomil/Copper
(2.5 lb 70WP/A) or
*anos
8-10 oz/A (3 days-PHI) tank-mixed with
Maneb
and a xed copper ungicide.
Anthracnose, Early Blight, and Phomopsis Blight
Follow a 4-year rotation. Use disease-ree seed. I disease threatens, apply ungicides:
*Quadris
6.5-15.4  oz/A. Alternate with
Manex
or other maneb ormulation.
*CabrioEG
8-12  oz/A (0 days-PHI). Alternate with
Manex
or other maneb ormulation.
opCopS
6F 4 pts/A (0 days-PHI).
Maneb75DF
or
80W
1.5-3.0 lb/A (7 days-PHI). For anthracnose only (see page 58, Uses o EBDC Fungicides).
Manex
1.2-2.4 qt/A (7 days-PHI).*Follow guidelines or ungicide resistance management on the product label (see pages 59-60).
Insect Control
Seethetableonthenextpageoroverviewoinsecticidesusedtocontrolpepperpests.
• At-planting or sidedress treatment
Dinoteuran
(21 days-PHI)For aphids, whiteies, thrips, ea beetles.Venom 70SG: 5-6 oz/A as transplant drench. Limit 12 oz/A per season.
Disuloton
(90 days-PHI)For aphids.Di-Syston 15G: 6.7-13.3 oz/1,000 . Limit 1 application per season.
Imidacloprid
(21 days-PHI)For aphids, whiteies, Colorado potato beetle, ea beetles, thrips.Admire 2F, Alias 2F: 16-32  oz/A. Apply at planting or as sidedress. Limit 32  oz/A per year.Admire Pro (4.6F): 7.0-14.0  oz/A.
Tiamethoxam
(30 days-PHI)For aphids, ea beetles, whiteies.Platinum 2SC: 5-11  oz/A.
• Bait treatment
Carbaryl
(0 days-PHI)For cutworms, armyworms.Sevin 5B: 20-40 lb/A or 7.3-14.7 oz/1,000 sq .Prozap Sevin 10% Bait Granules: 10-20 lb/A.
Metaldehyde
(0 days-PHI)For slugs.Deadline MP (4B): 20-40 lb/A.Prozap Snail and Slug AG (3.5B): 24-40 lb/A.Metaldehyde 7.5G: 20 lb/A.
Permethrin
(3 days-PHI)For crickets, cutworms.Ambush 0.5% Bait: 20-40 lb/A.

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