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Chemical Reaction

Chemical Reaction

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Published by: sharih on Feb 13, 2009
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06/02/2010

 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vapors of hydrogen chloridein a beaker andammoniain a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance,ammonium chlorideA
chemical reaction
is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances.
The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction arecalledreactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by achemical change, and they yield one or moreproducts, which are in general different from the reactants.Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electronsin the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of  a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of achemical equation, is applicable totransformations of elementary particles,as well asnuclear reactions. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations inchemical synthesisin order toget a desired product. In biochemistry, series of chemical reactionscatalyzedbyenzymes  formmetabolic pathways, by which syntheses and decompositions ordinarily impossiblein conditions within a cell are performed.
Reaction types
The large diversity of chemical reactionsand approaches to their study results in theexistence of several concurring, often overlapping, ways of classifying them. Below areexamples of widely used terms for describing common kinds of reactions.
Isomerisation,in which a chemical compound undergoes a structuralrearrangement without any change in its net atomic composition; seestereoisomerism 
Direct combinationor synthesis, in which 2 or more chemical elements or  compounds unite to form a more complex product:
 
2
+ 3H
2
→ 2 NH
3
analysis
, in which a compound is decomposed intosmaller compounds or elements:2H
2
O→ 2 H
2
+O
2
Single displacementor substitution, characterized by an element being displaced out of a compound by a morereactiveelement:2 Na(s) + 2 HCl(aq)→ 2 NaCl(aq) + H
2
(g)
Double displacement reaction
, in which two compounds exchangeionsor bonds to form different compounds: NaCl(aq) +AgNO
3
(aq) → NaNO
3
(aq) +AgCl(s)
Acid-basereactions, broadly characterized as reactions between anacidand a  base,can have different definitions depending on the acid-base concept employed.Some of the most common are:
Arrheniusdefinition: Acids dissociate in water releasing H
3
O
+
ions; basesdissociate in water releasing OH
-
ions.
Brønsted-Lowrydefinition: Acids are proton (H
+
) donors; bases are protonacceptors. Includes the Arrhenius definition.
Lewisdefinition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors; bases are electron-pair donors. Includes the Brønsted-Lowry definition.
Redox reactions, in which changes inoxidation numbersof atoms in involved species occur. Those reactions can often be interpreted as transferences of electrons between different molecular sites or species. An example of a redoxreaction is:2 S
2
O
32−
(aq) + I
2
(aq) → S
4
O
62−
(aq) + 2 I
(aq)In which I
2
is reduced to I
-
and S
2
O
32-
(thiosulfateanion) is oxidized to S
4
O
62-
.
Combustion, a kind of redox reaction in which any combustible substancecombines with an oxidizing element, usually oxygen, to generate heat and formoxidized products. The term combustion is usually used for only large-scaleoxidation of whole molecules, i.e. a controlled oxidation of a single functionalgroup is not combustion.C
10
H
8
+ 12 O
2
→ 10 CO
2
+ 4 H
2
OCH
2
S + 6F
2
CF
4
+ 2HF+SF
6
 
Organic reactionsencompass a wide assortment of reactions involvingcompoundswhich havecarbonas the main element in their molecular structure. The reactions in which anorganic compound may take part are largely defined by itsfunctional groups. Defined inopposition toinorganic reactions.Reactions can also be classified according to their mechanism, some typical examples being:
Reactions of ions, e.g.disproportionationof hypochlorite
Reactions with reactive ionic intermediates, e.g. reactions of enolates
Radicalreactions, e.g. combustion at high temperature
Reactions of carbenes
Chemical kinetics
Therateof a chemical reaction is a measure of how theconcentrationor  pressureof the involved substances changes with time. Analysis of reaction rates is important for severalapplications, such as inchemical engineeringor inchemical equilibriumstudy. Rates of  reaction depends basically on:
Reactantconcentrations, which usually make the reaction happen at a faster rate if raised through increased collisions per unit time,
Surface areaavailable for contact between the reactants, in particular solid ones inheterogeneous systems. Larger surface area leads to higher reaction rates.
Pressure, by increasing the pressure, you decrease the volume between molecules.This will increase the frequency of collisions of molecules.
Activation energy, which is defined as the amount of energy required to make thereaction start and carry on spontaneously. Higher activation energy implies thatthe reactants need more energy to start than a reaction with a lower activationenergy.
Temperature, which hastens reactions if raised, since higher temperature increasesthe energy of the molecules, creating more collisions per unit time,
The presence or absence of acatalyst. Catalysts are substances which change the pathway (mechanism) of a reaction which in turn increases the speed of a reaction by lowering theactivation energyneeded for the reaction to take place. A catalystis not destroyed or changed during a reaction, so it can be used again.
For some reactions, the presence of electromagnetic radiation, most notablyultra  violet, is needed to promote the breaking of bonds to start the reaction. This is particularly true for reactions involvingradicals.Reaction rates are related to theconcentrationsof substances involved in reactions, asquantified by therate lawof each reaction. Note that some reactions have rates that are
independent 
of reactant concentrations. These are calledzero order reactions.
Reactions and Energy
Chemical energy is part of all chemical reactions. Energy is needed to break chemical bonds in the starting substances. As new bonds form in the final substances, energy is

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