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4[Cooperative learning]competition there is a negative interdependence among goal achievements; students perceive thatthey can obtain their goals if and only if the other students in the class fail to obtain their goals(Deutsch, 1962; Johnson & Johnson, 1989).Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques: promote student learning andacademic achievement, increase student retention, enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience, help students develop skills in oral communication, develop students' socialskills, promote student self-esteem, help to promote positive race relations (Richards, 2006, P. 30 – 46) and can also be effective for teaching student to collaborate in their thinking (Eggen, 2004, p. 432). The positive effects that cooperation has on so many important outcomes makescooperative learning one of the most valuable tools educators have. As Egen says in his book (Eggen, 2004, p. 433) students of specific ethnic group tend to spend most of their time together,so they don’t learn that all of us are much more alike than we are different. Therefore as a teacher we use cooperative learning to solve this problem.
How to implement cooperative learning in the class?
Class members are organized into small groups after receiving instruction from theteacher. According to Richards the ideal members in one group two until six pearson.
Which students will be in a group together?
Student can decide, group can be formed on the basis of same commonality, group can formed at random, and teachers can decide. Teachers play anessential role in helping group function well. As Edge (1993: 70) points out, “the teachers is notasked to give up control in order to use pair work and group work. The teachers are asked toexercise control in order to use pair work and group work” (Richards, 2006, p. 38). In group,every member must feel a responsibility to learn and participate in the group, and students must