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Grid Interactive PV System with Harmonic andReactive Power Compensation Features using a NovelFuzzy Logic Based MPPT
 Nilesh Shah R. Chudamani
Research Scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical EngineeringSardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of TechnologySurat-395007, Gujarat, India Surat-395007, Gujarat, Indiae-mail: nilesh.shah@scet.ac.in e-mail: rc@eed.svnit.ac.in
 Abstract 
 — 
Photovoltaic (PV) cell characteristics are highlynonlinear that gives single Maximum Power Point (MPP) on P-Vcurve under uniform insolation condition. The characteristicsand hence MPP point changes with the variation in insolationand temperature. In order to extract a maximum power from PVarray, a fuzzy based MPP tracking algorithm is proposed. Thealgorithm accepts single input that is slope of P-V curve andgenerates the duty ratio as an output that operates the boostconverter to track MPP. The algorithm gives faster convergenceby applying variable step in duty ratio and gives accurate MPP.The two stage grid interactive PV system described in this papersupplies active power as well as provides harmonic and reactivepower compensation. This additional feature increases theeffective utilization of PV inverter and increases the overallefficiency of the system. The simulation results validate theperformance and stability of the grid interactive PV system usingthe proposed algorithm for active current injection as well asharmonics and reactive power compensation.
 Keywords- Photovoltaic system, maximum power point tracking, fuzzy logic controller, harmonic elimination, reactive power compensation.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
The worldwide increase in energy demand, rising rate of consumption of nuclear and fossil fuels, increasing awarenessabout global warming and environmental pollution etc. havedrawn attention towards an alternate non conventional sourceof energy. Photovoltaic(PV) amongst the renewable energysources has gained popularity as it is clean and safe, zero fuelcost, negligible maintenance and running cost, zero noise andair pollutionOne of the challenges in using PV system is extractingmaximum power that varies with the change in solar insolationand temperature. To increase the efficiency of the PV system,it is required to operate at the maximum power point (MPP).Several methods are presented for maximum power pointtracking (MPPT) from PV array [1-2] like Perturb andObserve
1
(P&O), incremental conductance, open circuitvoltage, short circuit current, ripple based, fuzzy based,
β
-method etc. The P&O technique is simple to implement butgives oscillations around final operating point and may failunder rapidly changing environmental conditions [1]. Theincremental conductance technique gives good performance978-1-4673-2605-6/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEEunder rapidly changing environment conditions but hascomplexity in implementation [1-2]. The constant voltage andconstant current techniques are simple but they do not track the MPP accurately [1-2]. The
β
-method gives good performance and higher tracking efficiency but has complexcalculations and depends on accurate
β
-factor [2].Fuzzy logic is becoming popular for MPP tracking whichovercomes the disadvantages of conventional methods. TheMPPT control using fuzzy logic is simple to implement, gives better convergence speed, and improves the tracking performance with minimum oscillation. Many stand alone PVsystem and two-stage grid connected PV system use fuzzylogic controller for MPP that takes at least two input andgenerates the control output [3-5]. The fuzzy logic MPPT usedin [6] controls the duty ratio of the DC-DC converter in stand-alone system using change in slope of P-V curve as input andchange in voltage as output. The authors in [7] proposedfuzzy logic controlled modified Hill Climbing method for MPP tracking in microgrid stand-alone PV system. Thealgorithm generates change in duty ratio as an output withchange in power and change in current as input.In this paper, an MPPT based on simple fuzzy logiccontrol strategy is proposed for two-stage grid interactive PVsystem. The proposed fuzzy logic MPPT controller acceptssingle input that is slope of P-V curve (dp/dv) and generatesthe duty cycle for the boost converter as an output to operatethe PV array at MPP and gives the maximum PV power to beinjected in the grid. The proposed technique gives faster convergence with less complexity. The validity and robustnessof the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through simulationresults.Due to high cost of PV panels, the effective utilization of PV system is essential. In order to utilize the PV systemeffectively, authors in [8-10] proposed grid connected PVsystem with active and reactive power control. In [8], a multifunction two stage grid connected PV system with VAR compensation is proposed. The control system usessynchronous frame PI controllers and a two stageconfiguration with a dc boost converter for MPPT and theinverter for synchronization with grid. The control algorithm proposed in [8] is only usable with linear loads. In line withthis and considering the power quality problem caused bygrowing number of nonlinear loads, the author in [11] has proposed grid interconnection of renewable energy sourceswith power quality improvement feature using 4-leg inverter.
 
The reference currents are generated based on unit sinusoidaltemplate generated using PLL and dc link voltage controlloop. Hence, the accuracy depends on the PLL and proper tuning of PI controller. Also, single-stage system imposes the problem of maintaining dc link voltage under lower insolationcondition. Based on work in [11], single-stage grid connected photovoltaic interface with VAR compensation and activefiltering functions is presented in [12].The two stage grid interactive PV system described in this paper supplies active and reactive power as well as providesthe harmonic compensation during day time. At night, the PVinverter still provides harmonic and reactive power compensation. Thus, the overall utilization of PV system isincreased. The simulation results obtained using proposedalgorithm gives the validity of the grid interactive PV systemfor reactive power and harmonic compensation features inaddition to active power injection.The PV array modeling and its characteristics aredescribed in section-II. The proposed algorithm is discussedelaborately in section-III. In section-IV, the grid connected PVsystem configuration is described along with the controlstrategy and the simulation results are described in section-V.Finally, the conclusions are given in section-VI.II.
 
PV
 
A
RRAY
M
ODELLING
A
 ND
C
HARACTERISTICS
The PV array is made up of number of PV modulesconnected in series called string and number of such stringsconnected in parallel to achieve desired voltage and current.The PV module used for simulation study consists of 36 seriesconnected polycrystalline cells.
 A.
 
 PV Model 
The electrical equivalent circuit model of PV cell consistsof a current source in parallel with a diode [14] as shown inFig. 1.
Figure 1 Electrical Equivalent Circuit Model of PV Cell
 From the electrical equivalent circuit of the PV cell, PVoutput current (
 I 
 PV 
) is given by
I
PV =
I
Ph
- I
D
- I
sh
(1)
where
 ,
I
D
= I
0

- 1)
(2)
and
 
I
sh
=
 

 


 (3)
The parameters
q,
η
 , k and
denote the electronic charge,ideality factor of the diode, Boltzmann constant andtemperature in Kelvin respectively.
 I 
 ph
 
is photocurrent,
 I 
0
isdiode reverse saturation current,
 I 
 PV 
and
 PV 
are the PV outputcurrent and voltage respectively.As the value of 
 R
 sh
is very large, it has a negligible effecton the I-V characteristics of PV cell or array. Thus (1) can besimplified to
I
PV 
=
 
I
 ph
- I
0

- 1)
 (4)
For PV array consisting of N
s
series and N
 p
parallel connectedPV modules, (4) becomes,
I
PV 
=
 


1
 (5)
 B.
 
 PV Characteristics
The PV model is simulated using Solarex MSX60, 60WPV module. The simulated I-V and P-V characteristics of theSolarex PV module at constant temperature and varyinginsolation are shown in Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(b) respectively. Itcan be seen from Fig. 2(a) that the decrease in insolationreduces the current largely but voltage fall is small. Fig. 2(b)shows that the reduction in insolation reduces the power largely as both voltage and current are decreasing.The effect of temperature on I-V and P-V characteristics of Solarex PV module is shown in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b)respectively. It can be seen from Fig. 3(a) that the increase intemperature reduces the open circuit voltage largely but rise incurrent is very small. Fig. 3(b) shows that the increase intemperature reduces the PV output power as the reduction inthe voltage is larger than the increase in current due totemperature rise.
Figure 2 (a) I-V characteristics and (b) P-V characteristics of the Solarex PVmodule at
 
constant temperature T=30
0
C and varying insolation.
 
Figure 3 (a) I-V characteristics and (b) P-V characteristics of the Solarex PVmodule at constant insolation
λ
=1000W/m
2
and different temperature.
III.
 
P
ROPOSED
M
PPT
A
LGORITHM
 From the simulated I-V and P-V characteristics of the PVmodule, it can be seen that the characteristics are highlynonlinear. Also, there is single point on P-V curve where thePV can produce maximum power. The MPP changes withchange in insolation and temperature. Therefore, an MPPTcontroller is required to extract maximum available power from the PV array under varying load and changingenvironmental conditions. This paper proposes a novel fuzzylogic based MPPT controller.
 
0510152025012341000 W/m2Module Output Voltage (V)
    M   o    d   u    l   e    O   u    t   p   u    t    C   u   r   r   e   n    t    (    A    )
800 W/m2600 W/m2400 W/m2200 W/m2(a)
051015202501020304050601000W/m2Module Output Voltage (V)
    M   o    d   u    l   e    O   u    t   p   u    t    P   o   w   e   r    (    W    )
800W/m2600W/m2400W/m2200W/m2(b)
0510152025012340 deg. CModule Output Voltage (V)
    M   o    d   u    l   e    O   u    t   p   u    t    C   u   r   r   e   n    t    (    A    )
30 deg. C50 deg. C75 deg. C(a)051015202501020304050607075 deg. CModule Output Voltage (V)
    M   o    d   u    l   e    O   u    t   p   u    t    P   o   w   e   r    (    W    )
50 deg. C30 deg. C0 deg. C(b)
 
Fuzzy logic can model or control non-linear systems thatare difficult to model mathematically. The fuzzy logic ischosen for MPPT as it gives appropriate performance for varying dynamics, higher convergence speed, robust andsimple to design compared to conventional methods. Themajor objective of the proposed controller is to track andextract maximum power from the PV arrays for a varyingsolar insolation and cell temperature. The block diagram of the proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is shown in Fig. 4. Themajor functional blocks of the FLC are described as follows:
Figure 4 Block diagram of proposed fuzzy based MPPT controller 
1) Fuzzification
From the prior knowledge of input and output range, thefuzzification process divides the input and output intolinguistic fuzzy sets. The proposed FLC takes single input thatis the slope of the P-V curve and gives the duty ratio for switching the boost converter as an output. After sampling thePV array voltage and current,
Δ
P(k) and
Δ
V(k) are determinedas follows:
 
1
(6)
1
(7)where P(k) and V(k) are the power and voltage of PV array,respectively.The
Δ
P(k)/
Δ
V(k) obtained using (6) and (7) is given as aninput to the FLC that generates the duty ratio (D) as an outputfor providing the switching pulses to the boost converter inorder to operate the PV array at MPP. Depending upon themagnitude of the slope of P-V curve, the proposed FLCdivides the input and output into seven linguistic fuzzy sets:negative big (NB), negative medium (NM), negative small(NS), zero (ZO), positive big (PB), positive medium (PM) and positive small (PS). The membership functions of the inputand output variables are shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6respectively. The membership functions for output duty ratioare so chosen that it maintains the dc link voltage higher than650 V at the same time operate the PV array at MPP. Hence, proposed fuzzy controller eliminates the need for PI controller for dc-link voltage regulation.
Figure 5 Membership function for input variable (
Δ
P/
Δ
V)Figure 6 Membership function for output variable (D)
2)
 
 Fuzzy rule base
 
The fuzzy rules should be precisely defined based on theknowledge in order to generate an output duty ratio as per themagnitude of the slope of P-V curve to operate the PV array atMPP. When the slope of P-V curve is positive then to reachtowards MPP, the duty ratio of boost converter is decreased inorder to increase the PV operating voltage. Similarly, if theslope of P-V curve is negative then to move the operating point at MPP, the duty ratio is increased. The seven rules usedfor tracking the MPP in the proposed technique are listed inTable I.
 
Table I FUZZY RULES
 Δ
 P/ 
 Δ
V NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB D PB PM PS ZO NS NM NB3) Defuzzification
The deffuzification process generates the single crisp valueof output duty ratio (D) from the aggregated fuzzy set thatincludes a range of output values. The widely used centroid(centre of area) method [16] is used to convert the fuzzysubset of duty ratio (D) to real number. It computes the centreof gravity from the final output fuzzy set, and gives a resultwhich is highly related to all of the elements in the same fuzzyset. It is mathematically represented by
μ
.
μ

 (8)where, z* = D which is the output of fuzzy logic controller,
 denotes an algebraic integration and z is the aggregated fuzzyset of output.The proposed fuzzy logic MPPT controller applies variablesteps in duty ratio for controlling the boost converter as per thecurrent operating point and hence, gives faster convergence toMPP compared to conventional algorithms. The proposedalgorithm gives robust performance under rapidly changingenvironmental conditions under which the conventional P&Otechnique is likely to fail [1].IV.
 
C
ONTROL
O
F
G
RID
I
 NTERACTIVE
PV
 
S
YSTEM
 The grid interactive PV system configuration used for simulation study is shown in Fig. 7. It consists of two power  processing stages: DC-DC boost converter as first stage andthree-phase voltage source inverter as second stage. The boostconverter stage provides not only the boosting of PV outputvoltage for grid connectivity but also used as MPP tracker.
Figure 7 Grid connected PV system configuration
 

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