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Tıbbi ve Aromatik Bitkiler

Tıbbi ve Aromatik Bitkiler

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Published by Erdem

Tıbbi ve Aromatik bitkilerle ilgili herşey , Alternatif tıp Şifalı bitkiler

Tıbbi ve Aromatik bitkilerle ilgili herşey , Alternatif tıp Şifalı bitkiler

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Published by: Erdem on Feb 25, 2013
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09/17/2013

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‹çindekiler 
Önsöz............................................................................................................xii
Bitkisel Kaynakl› Ham Maddelerin Kullan›m›nda Kalite,Etkinlik ve Güvenlik.................................................................2
G‹R‹fi - TAR‹H ÖNCES‹NDE (TIBB‹) B‹TK‹LER ........................................ 3Paleontolojik Ça¤ ......................................................................................... 3Milattan Önce (M.Ö. 50.000-0) ................................................................... 4Milattan Sonra (M.S. 0-1900) ........................................................................ 5DO⁄AL HAZ‹NE KAYNA⁄I OLARAK B‹TK‹LER ....................................... 6B‹TK‹SEL KAYNAKLI HAM MADDE: TIBB‹ VE AROMAT‹K B‹TK‹LER ... 7T›bbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Özellikleri ..................................................... 7Farmakope ve Bitkisel Ürünler ................................................................... 9Türk Farmakopesi Standartlar› .............................................................. 11Farmakope’de Bitkisel Droglarda Kalite ile ‹lgili Kriterler .................. 12B‹TK‹SEL ÜRÜNLER‹N KULLANIMI ÖNCES‹NDED‹KKAT ED‹LECEK HUSUSLAR .................................................................. 14Etkinlik .......................................................................................................... 15Kalite ............................................................................................................. 16Güvenilirlik ve Güvenlik ............................................................................. 16Özet................................................................................................................ 18Kendimizi S›nayal›m...................................................................................... 19Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 20S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar›.............................................................................. 20 Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar............................................... 21 Yararlan›lan ‹nternet Adresleri ..................................................................... 21 Yararlan›labilecek Di¤er Kaynaklar.............................................................. 21
T›bbi ve Aromatik Bitki ve Bitkisel ÜrünlerinKullan›m›nda Etik....................................................................22
G‹R‹fi.............................................................................................................. 23ET‹K NED‹R? ................................................................................................ 24Günlük Hayatta Etik .................................................................................... 27B‹YOET‹K ..................................................................................................... 28Biyolojik Çeflitlilik ve Çevre - Bitki Eti¤i ..................................................... 30TIBB‹ AROMAT‹K B‹TK‹LER‹N KULLANIMINDA ET‹K.............................. 31T›bbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Etik Üretimi .................................................. 32T›bbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Pazarlamas› ve Ticaretinde Etik.................... 33T›bbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Etik ve Etik Olmayan Kullan›m› .................. 33TIBB‹ AROMAT‹K B‹TK‹LER‹N KULLANIMINDASAKINCALI DURUMLAR .............................................................................. 36Baz› Uygulama ve Önlemler ....................................................................... 37Özet ............................................................................................................... 44Kendimizi S›nayal›m ..................................................................................... 45Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 46 Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar............................................... 46Ek 1................................................................................................................ 48
‹çindekiler
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1. ÜN‹TE2. ÜN‹TE
 
Bitkisel Ham Maddelerin Kullan›ma Haz›rlanmas›..............50
G‹R‹fi ............................................................................................................. 51B‹TK‹SEL FARMASÖT‹K ÜRÜNLERDE GACP VE GMP ........................... 53T›bbi Bitkilerde ‹yi Tar›m ve Toplama Uygulamlar› (GACP)..................... 54‹yi Üretim Uygulamalar› (GMP) ................................................................... 56D‹ST‹LASYON VE EKSTRAKS‹YON YÖNTEMLER‹ ‹LE HAZIRLAMA........ 58Distilasyon ..................................................................................................... 58Ekstraksiyon................................................................................................... 59Perkolasyon................................................................................................... 59Maserasyon.................................................................................................... 59‹nfüzyon ve Dekoksiyon .............................................................................. 60Perkolasyon Haz›rlanmas›............................................................................. 60Ekstreler (Extracta)........................................................................................ 61Bitkisel Droglar (Plantae Medicinales)......................................................... 61Bitki Çaylar› (Plantae ad ptisanam) ............................................................. 63Tentürler (Tinctura)....................................................................................... 63 Aromatik Sular............................................................................................... 64FARMASÖT‹K fiEK‹L HAL‹NE GET‹RME...................................................... 65Çözeltiler........................................................................................................ 65fiuruplar.................................................................................................... 66Spiritler..................................................................................................... 67Eliksirler................................................................................................... 68Posyonlar................................................................................................. 68 Yar› Kat› Preparatlar...................................................................................... 69Merhemler................................................................................................ 69 Jeller......................................................................................................... 69Kremler.................................................................................................... 70Sabunlar................................................................................................... 70 Yak›lar...................................................................................................... 70Kat› Preparatlar.............................................................................................. 70Tozlar ...................................................................................................... 70Granüleler ............................................................................................... 70Tabletler................................................................................................... 70Kaplanm›fl Tabletler ............................................................................... 71Kapsüller (Capsulae gelatinae, Capsulae gelatinosae, Capsulesgelatineuses, Gelules) ............................................................................ 72Özet................................................................................................................ 74Kendimizi S›nayal›m...................................................................................... 75Kendimizi S›nayal›m Yan›t Anahtar› ............................................................ 76S›ra Sizde Yan›t Anahtar›.............................................................................. 76 Yararlan›lan ve Baflvurulabilecek Kaynaklar............................................... 77
Bitkisel Hammadde ve Ürünlerin Kullan›m›nda DikkatEdilecek Hususlar....................................................................78
G‹R‹fi ............................................................................................................. 79B‹TK‹SEL ÜRÜNLER NEDEN ZARARLIDIR? ............................................... 80ÖNEML‹ YAN ETK‹LER‹ OLAN DO⁄AL ETK‹N B‹LEfiENLER .................. 81 Aristoloik Asit ................................................................................................ 82 Atropin........................................................................................................... 82
‹çindekiler
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3. ÜN‹TE4. ÜN‹TE
 
β
- Asaron...................................................................................................... 82Berberin......................................................................................................... 82Kalp Glikozitleri ........................................................................................... 83‹yot ................................................................................................................ 83Lektinler......................................................................................................... 84Oksalatlar ...................................................................................................... 85Pirolizidin Alkaloitleri .................................................................................. 85Safrol.............................................................................................................. 86Salisilatlar....................................................................................................... 87Siyanogenejtik Glikozitler............................................................................. 87Tanenler......................................................................................................... 88Tuyon ............................................................................................................ 88ÖNEML‹ YAN ETK‹LER‹ OLAN B‹TK‹SEL DROGLAR ................................ 89Karsinojenik Reaksiyonlar............................................................................. 89 Alkannae radix (Havaciva kökü) ........................................................... 89Senecio herba.......................................................................................... 89Eupatorii herba........................................................................................ 90Rubia tinctorii radix (Boyac› kökü) ....................................................... 90
Rhamnus purshiana 
, Rhamni purshianae cortex (Cascara Sagrada) . 90Cocae folium ................................................................................................. 90Farfarae folium........................................................................................ 91Euphorbia herba ..................................................................................... 91Kalp-Damar Sistemi Rahats›zl›klar›............................................................... 91Crataegi flos (Al›ç çiçe¤i)........................................................................ 91Ephedra herba (Deniz Üzümü).............................................................. 92Ginseng radix (Ginseng kökü)............................................................... 92Liquiritiae radix (Meyan kökü) ............................................................. 93Gastrointestinal Rahats›zl›klar....................................................................... 94Eucalyptii folium (Ökaliptus yapra¤›).................................................... 94Eucalypti aetheroleum [Ökaliptus (uçucu) ya¤›] ................................. 94Elaterii fructus (Ac›düvel, Ac›dülek, Eflekh›yar›)................................... 94Bromelainum (Ananas suyundan elde edilen proteolitik enzim)........ 95Echinaceae purpureae herba (Ekinezya)............................................... 95Cimicifuga racemosae rhizoma (Black Cohosh) .................................. 96Rusci aculeati rhizoma (Kuzukula¤›, Tavflan memesi)......................... 96Taraxaci radix cum herba (Karahindiba¤)............................................. 96Hippocastani semen (Atkestanesi tohumu)........................................... 96Menthae aetheroleum (Nane ya¤›) ........................................................ 97Sabal fructus (Sabal meyvas›)................................................................. 97Urtica radix (Is›rgan otu kökü).............................................................. 98Curcumae longae rhizoma (Zerdaçal)................................................... 98Salicis cortex (Kavak kabu¤u)................................................................ 99Hydrastis rhizoma ................................................................................... 99Solunum Sistemi Rahats›zl›klar›.................................................................... 100Strobili lupuli (fierbetçi otu)................................................................... 100Sinir Sistemi Rahats›zl›klar›........................................................................... 100Kava kava rhizoma ................................................................................. 100Colae semen............................................................................................ 100Mate ........................................................................................................ 101Tanacetii flos (Gümüfldü¤me)................................................................ 101
‹çindekiler
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