Sean LiMath 7370 Notes
−
Spring 2013Algebraic Number TheoryLecture 20
−
3/6/13
Primary Ideals.
An ideal
I
is
primary
if
xy
∈
I
implies
x
∈
I
or
y
n
∈
I
for some
n
. Cancheck that in
Z
, primary is equivalent to prime power.Last time we proved that in a noetherian ring, every irreducible ideal is primary. Theconverse is not generally true (but is true if primary is replaced with prime).With the result from last time, in a noetherian ring, every ideal is a ﬁnite intersection of primary ideals. Unique?Relation between prime and primary ideals? Geometric interpretation? (For example,
X
2
−
Y
2
= 0 can be factored as (
X
−
Y
)(
X
+
Y
) = 0 and geometrically, it is an algebraic varietythat is a union of two algebraic varieties. A reducible algebraic variety is a ﬁbnite union of irreducible varieties. Can be thought of as (
X
2
−
Y
2
) = (
X
+
Y
)
∩
(
X
−
Y
).)
Notion of a (Nil)Radical.
Let
R
(
I
) =
{
x
∈
A

x
n
∈
I
}
. Then
R
(
I
) is an ideal.
Claim.
I
is primary implies
R
(
I
) is prime.Suppose
xy
∈ R
(
I
) and
x /
∈ R
(
I
). Then (
xy
)
n
∈
I
for some
n
. But
x
n
/
∈
I
implies (
y
n
)
m
∈
I
,so
y
∈ R
(
I
).
Proposition.
In any ring, for an arbitrary ideal
I
, one has
R
(
I
) =
℘
⊃
I
℘
for prime
℘
.
℘
⊃
I
implies
℘
⊂ R
(
I
).Suppose
x /
∈ R
(
I
), we want to ﬁnd a
℘
containing
I
but not
x
. Let
S
=
{
1
,x,x
2
,...
} ⊂
A
,and look at
S
−
1
A
. Then
S
∩
I
=
∅
. Choose a maximal ideal
M
in
S
−
1
A
containing
S
−
1
I
(proper containment from the intersection we found), and let
℘
be its inverse image in
A
of
M
from
A
→
S
−
1
A
. Then
℘
contains
I
but not
x
, since the map sends
x
to a unit, and anideal containing a unit is the whole ring.
Jacobson Radical.
There is another kind of radical called the Jacobson radical, deﬁnedby
J
(
I
) =
M
⊃
I M
maximal
M
. Note that
J
(
I
)
⊃ R
(
I
).Let
I
⊂
F
[
X
1
,...,X
n
] =
A
. Let
V
(
I
) be the set of common solutions of the equations
f
= 0,
f
∈
I
, and
I
(
V
) =
f
∈
A,f
(
x
1
,...,x
n
) = 0 for all (
x
1
,...,x
n
)
∈
V
.