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Math 7370-Lecture 20

Math 7370-Lecture 20

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Published by Sean Li
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

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Published by: Sean Li on Mar 06, 2013
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Sean LiMath 7370 Notes
Spring 2013Algebraic Number TheoryLecture 20
3/6/13
Primary Ideals.
An ideal
is
primary 
if 
xy
implies
x
or
y
n
for some
n
. Cancheck that in
Z
, primary is equivalent to prime power.Last time we proved that in a noetherian ring, every irreducible ideal is primary. Theconverse is not generally true (but is true if primary is replaced with prime).With the result from last time, in a noetherian ring, every ideal is a finite intersection of primary ideals. Unique?Relation between prime and primary ideals? Geometric interpretation? (For example,
2
2
= 0 can be factored as (
)(
+
) = 0 and geometrically, it is an algebraic varietythat is a union of two algebraic varieties. A reducible algebraic variety is a fibnite union of irreducible varieties. Can be thought of as (
2
2
) = (
+
)
(
).)
Notion of a (Nil-)Radical.
Let
R
(
) =
{
x
A
|
x
n
}
. Then
R
(
) is an ideal.
Claim.
is primary implies
R
(
) is prime.Suppose
xy
R
(
) and
x /
R
(
). Then (
xy
)
n
for some
n
. But
x
n
/
implies (
y
n
)
m
,so
y
R
(
).
Proposition.
In any ring, for an arbitrary ideal
, one has
R
(
) =
for prime
.
implies
R
(
).Suppose
x /
R
(
), we want to find a
containing
but not
x
. Let
=
{
1
,x,x
2
,...
}
A
,and look at
1
A
. Then
=
. Choose a maximal ideal
in
1
A
containing
1
(proper containment from the intersection we found), and let
be its inverse image in
A
of 
from
A
1
A
. Then
contains
but not
x
, since the map sends
x
to a unit, and anideal containing a unit is the whole ring.
Jacobson Radical.
There is another kind of radical called the Jacobson radical, definedby
(
) =
maximal
. Note that
(
)
R
(
).Let
[
1
,...,X 
n
] =
A
. Let
(
) be the set of common solutions of the equations
= 0,
, and
(
) =
A,
(
x
1
,...,x
n
) = 0 for all (
x
1
,...,x
n
)
.

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