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Ancient History of the Embodied Soul Asclepius

Ancient History of the Embodied Soul Asclepius

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Published by Jonah Orange
Asclepius revisited
Asclepius revisited

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Published by: Jonah Orange on Mar 10, 2009
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05/04/2013

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Ancient History of the
- The Ministry of the Ascetics - Essenes,Therapeutae and AsclepiusChronologyEssenes(Palestine)Therapeutae(Egypt,Greece)The HealerAsclepiusSource Comments
999 BCE
ASCETICISM
 
Encyclopedia Britannica: The Zulus and other primitive races distrust a medicine man who is not anascetic and lean with fasting. In the Semitic East it is an old belief that a successful fast in the wilderness of forty days andnights gives power over the Djinns. The Indian yogi fasts till he sees face to face all the gods of his Pantheon; the Indianmagician fasts twelve days before producing rain or working any cure.
700 BCE
Homer
 
Iliad: mentions Asclepius as a skillful physician, not a miracle worker.
528 BCEYES YESAsclepius 
Mythological beginnings: son of Apollo
528 BCEGautamaBuddha Enlightenmentat the age of 35years515 BCE
Buddhist Influence
:
Therapeutae were sent by Buddha. Were the ancient Pythagoreans influenced by Indianideas – vegetarianism, communal property, 'transmigration of souls.' and the principles of Ayurvedic medicine (Pythagoras'four humours).
510 BCENO YES YES Pythagoras
(580 - c.490 BCE)Michael Grant, in hiswell-respected 'The Riseof the Greeks' makesnote that the cult of Thoth/Hermes and itsequivalent'Imhotep/Asklepios'wasthe main intellectual belief during the time of Pythagoras.
450 BCE YES YES Pindar 
Lyric poet mentionsAsclepius performinghealings, miracles andraising people from thedead.
420 BCE Life of SophoclesYESSophocles 
 served as a priest to Asclepius
 HippocraticOath
 YESHippocrates 
"I swear by Apollo, thehealer ...
323 BCE
Alexander
(336-323 BC) carried Greek civilization to the east. But the flow of culture was two way – for example, theGreeks adopted the Indian war elephant and a great deal of speculative Indian thinking. Greek philosophers, like Anaxarchusand Pyrrho, had been in the train of Alexander and had mixed with the Indian gymnosophists or 'naked philosophers.' After their conquest of the Indus valley the Greeks never again returned to the simple pantheon of their Olympian gods – andfounded their first school of Skepticism
250 BCE
Buddhist Influence
:
Therapeutae were sent by Asoka on an embassy to Pharaoh Ptolemy II (The word'Therapeutae' is itself of Buddhist origin, being a Hellenization of the Pali 'Thera-putta' (literally 'son of the elder' or 'son of the monk'). Ashoka, in his Second Edict refers to philanthropic works (such as medical help for humans and animals, diggingwells, planting trees etc.) taken up by his missionaries in the lands ruled by Theos II of Syria (260 to 240 B. C) and hisneighbors , including Egypt.
 
0015 BCE SourceMarcusVipsaniusAgrippagovernor of Syria, friend of Herod theGreat (Pliny'ssource)020 CE NO YES YES Strabo
Strabo tells us that theAsclepius temples at Cosand Epidaurus werealways filled with patients, and along their walls the tablets weresuspended, upon whichwere recorded thehistory and treatment of the individual cases of disease. One of thesetablets has been foundon the island in theTiber, near Rome, at thesite of an ancient temple- inscribed in Greek:
"Lucius was attacked bythe pleurisy, and everyone despaired of his life; the god ordered that the warm ashes of the altar be mingled with wine, and applied to his side. He was saved, and gave thanksto the god before the people." 
 
020 CE NO YES YESChaeremonthe Stoic
Contemporary of Strabo;system not extinct -source for Porphyry
Philo
 
is often taken as the sole authority for the
Therapeutae
. When he wrote, the origins of the Therapeutae werealready lost in the past, and he was even unsure about the etymology of their name, which he explained as meaning either 
physicians of souls
or servants of God
 
. Philo was employing the familiar polarity in Hellenic philosophy between the activeand the contemplative life, exemplifying the active life by the Essenes, another severely ascetic sect, and the contemplativelife by the desert-dwelling Therapeutae. According to Philo, the
Therapeutae were widely distributed in the Ancientworld
, among the Greeks and beyond in the non-Greek world of the "Barbarians", with one of ther major gathering point being in Alexandria, in the area of the Lake Mareotis
030 CEOn Ascetics On Ascetics YESPhiloJudaeus
Essenes in Palestine;Therapeutae in Egypt(and everywhere). TheTherapeutae admittedwomen, the Essenes didnot. The Therepeutae practiced annointmentwith oil in the usualOriental manner,whereas oil wasregarded as a defilement by the Essenes.
Roman COINS
:
Coins minted from the time of Nero in 54 CE through to Licinius in 324 CE depict Asclepius or Salus -- include a total of forty-six emperors (listed below). It is notable that the tradition ceases with the rise to supremacy of the emperor Constantine.
070 CE?
P.Oxy.413
:
an incomplete manuscript of a Greek mime ( a skit). The scene of action of the skit is India and there are anumber of Indian characters who speak dialogue in an Indian language. Dr. E. Hultzsch (1857-1927), a noted GermanIndologist, identified some words of the dialogue as an archaic form of Kannada, one of the four major languages of SouthIndia.
 
075 CE  NaturalHistory5.73 NaturalHistory 29.1.3YESPliny theElder 
Asclepius raisedTyndareus from the dead(Pliny the Elder, NaturalHistory 29.1.3),
090 CEJosephus states flatly that the Essene lifestyle and thePythagorean lifestylewere the same. (Antiquities 15.10.4).090 CE Antiquities(15.10.4)"Pythagoreans"Josephus095 CEFragments
Pythagorean Sage andAscetic, adept, cited byPhilostratus(Biographer), Eusebiusregards as an authorityon abstinence fromsacrifice
100 CEviaBiographer?DioChrysostomSee Synesiusof Cyrene2nd CE Medical YESPedaniusDioscorides
wrote an encyclopedia of medicine
2nd CE Medical YESAulusCorneliusCelsus
Greek physician, adisciple of Hippocrates
2nd CE Medical YESRufus of Ephesus
Greek anatomistrenowned for hisinvestigations of theheart and eye
2nd CE Medical YESSoranus of Ephesus
Greek physician, whorecorded informationconcerning obstetricsand gynecology,apparently based onhuman dissection;distinguished amongdiseases by their symptoms and course.
150 CE Description of Greece126 refs Pausanias
Greek traveller andgeographer of the 2ndcentury CE., who livedin the times of Hadrian,Antoninus Pius andMarcus Aurelius. Hedescribes ancient Greecefrom firsthandobservations, and is acrucial link betweenclassical literature andmodern archaeology.
Sacred Tales
39.5YESAeliusAristides 
"We Asclepiustherapeutae "
165 CEMedicalWorksYESGalen of Pergamon 
Student of Hippocrates, physician to the emperor Marcus Aurelius,

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