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NCERT Book Practical Work in Geography Class XI

NCERT Book Practical Work in Geography Class XI

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NCERT Book Practical Work in Geography Class XI (provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)
NCERT Book Practical Work in Geography Class XI (provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)

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Published by: nikhilam.com on Apr 10, 2009
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10/17/2011

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1
Introduction to Maps 
 
Chapter 1
Introduction to Maps
 You may be familiar withmaps that you have seen inmost of your books of socialsciences representing theearth or any of its parts. You may also know that theshape of the earth is geoid(three-dimensional) and aglobe can best represent it(Fig. 1.1). A map, on theother hand, is a simplifieddepiction of whole or partof the earth on a piece of paper. In other words, it isa two-dimensional form of the three-dimensionalearth. Hence, a map can bedrawn using a system of map projections (seeChapter 4). As it is impossible to represent all features of the earth’ssurface in their true size and form, a map is drawn at a reducedscale. Imagine your school campus. If a plan/map of your school isto be drawn in its actual size, it will be as large as the campus itself.Hence, maps are drawn at a scale and projection so that each pointon the paper corresponds to the actual ground position. Besides,the representation of different features is also simplified usingsymbols, colours and shades. A map is, therefore, defined asselective, symbolised and generalised representation of whole or a
Figure 1.1 India as it is seen on the globe 
 
2
Practical Work in Geography 
Glossary
Cadastral Map : 
A large-scale map drawn at a scale of 1 : 500 to 1 : 4000 to show property  boundaries, designating each parcel of land with a number.
Cardinal Points : 
 
North (N), South (S), East (E) and West (W).
Cartography : 
Art, science and technology of making maps, charts, plans and other modesof graphical expression as well as their study and use.
Generalisation-Map : 
 
 A simplified representation of the features on the map, appropriateto its scale or purpose, without affecting their visual form.
Geoid : 
 
 An oblate spheroid whose shape resembles the actual shape of the Earth.
Map : 
 
 A selective, symbolised and generalised representation of the whole or part of theearth at a reduced scale.
Map series : 
 
 A group of maps produced at same scale, style and specifications for a country or a region.
 Projection-Map : 
 
 The system of the transformation of the spherical surface onto a planesurface.
Scale : 
The ratio between the distances of two points on the map, plan or photograph andthe actual distance between the same two points on the ground.
Sketch Map : 
 
 A simplified map drawn freehand which fails to preserve the true scale or orientation.
Figure 1.2 Sketch of the Environs of Delhi (Left) and a Map of Delhi (Right)

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