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Published by SudharsananPRS
Irrigation Manual Part 4
Irrigation Manual Part 4

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Published by: SudharsananPRS on Jun 06, 2013
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Part 652Irrigation Guide
Water RequirementsChapter 4
4–11(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
 
Chapter 4Water Requirements
Contents:
4–i
652.0400General41652.0401Methods for determining crop evapotranspiration41
(a)Direct measurement of crop evapotranspiration.....................................4–1(b)Estimated crop evapotranspiration—ET
c
.................................................4–1
652.0402Crop evapotranspiration43
(a)Daily crop ET rate for system design.........................................................4–3
652.0403Net irrigation water requirement43652.0404Management allowable soil-water depletion47652.0405Auxiliary water requirements (other needs)47652.0406Water table contribution48652.0407Water requirements for soil-water budget/balance analysis4–8
(a)Example soil-water budget..........................................................................4–9
652.0408State supplement410TablesTable 41
Example tabular display—crop evapotranspiration using4–5FAO Blaney-Criddle equation
Table 4–2
Example soil-water budget410
FiguresFigure 4–1
Example monthly crop evapotranspiration, arid climate4–6in normal year
Figure 4–2
Example monthly crop evapotranspiration, subhumid4–6climate in normal year
 
Part 652Irrigation Guide
Water RequirementsChapter 4
4–1(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
 
Chapter 4Water Requirements
652.0400General
Determination of irrigation water requirements re-quires a measurement or estimate of the rate of cropwater use. Daily and weekly crop water use estimatesare needed to schedule irrigation applications anddetermine minimum system capacities. Seasonal orannual water use is required to size irrigation reser-voirs and diversion facilities and to establish waterrights. Therefore, a procedure to determine both short-and long-term rates of water use is necessary. Chapter2, Irrigation Water Requirements, NEH, Part 623,describes the processes needed to determine cropevapotranspiration and irrigation water requirementsfor a crop, field, farm, and project.Crop evapotranspiration (ET
c
), sometimes called cropconsumptive use, is the amount of water that plantsuse in transpiration and building cell tissue plus waterevaporated from an adjacent soil surface. Crop evapo-transpiration is influenced by several major factors:plant temperature, ambient air temperature, solarradiation (sunshine duration/intensity), wind speed/movement, relative humidity/vapor pressure, and soil-water availability. Daily, weekly, monthly, and sea-sonal local crop water use requirements must beknown. These data are essential for planning, design-ing, and operating irrigation systems and for makingirrigation management decisions, such as determiningwhen and how much to irrigate.Seasonal water requirements, in addition to crop waterneeds, may also include water used for preplant irriga-tion, agricultural waste application, leaching for saltcontrol, temperature control (for frost protection, buddelay, and cooling for product quality), chemigation,facilitation of crop harvest, seed germination, and dustcontrol.
652.0401Methods fordetermining crop evapo-transpiration
(a)Direct measurement of cropevapotranspiration
Direct measurement methods for ET
c
include:aerodynamic methoddetailed soil moisture monitoringlysimetryplant porometersregional inflow-outflow measurementsAll these methods require localized and detailed mea-surements of plant water use. Detailed soil moisturemonitoring in controlled and self-contained devices(lysimeters) is probably the most commonly used.Little long-term historical data outside of a few ARSand university research stations are available. Use of lysimetry is discussed in more detail in Chapter 2,Irrigation Water Requirements, NEH, Part 623. The useof soil moisture monitoring devices to monitor cropET is described in NEH, Part 623, Chapter 1, Plant-Soil-Water Relationships.
(b)Estimated crop evapo-transpiration—ET
c
More than 20 methods have been developed to esti-mate the rate of crop ET based on local climate fac-tors. The simplest methods are equations that gener-ally use only mean air temperature. The more complexmethods are described as energy equations. Theyrequire real time measurements of solar radiation,ambient air temperature, wind speed/movement, andrelative humidity/vapor pressure. These equationshave been adjusted for reference crop ET with lysim-eter data. Selection of the method used for determin-ing local crop ET depends on:Location, type, reliability, timeliness, andduration of climatic data;Natural pattern of evapotranspiration duringthe year; andIntended use intensity of crop evapotranspira-tion estimates.
 
Part 652Irrigation Guide
Water RequirementsChapter 4
42(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
Although any crop can be used as the reference crop,clipped grass is the reference crop of choice. Someearlier reference crop research, mainly in the West,used 2-year-old alfalfa (ET
r
). With grass reference crop(ET
o
) known, ET estimates for any crop at any stageof growth can be calculated by multiplying ET
o
by theappropriate crop growth stage coefficient (k
c)
, usuallydisplayed as a curve or table. The resulting value iscalled crop evapotranspiration (ET
c
). The followingmethods and equations used to estimate referencecrop evapotranspiration, ET
o
, are described in detail inPart 623, Chapter 2, Irrigation Water Requirements(1990). The reference crop used is clipped grass. Cropcoefficients are based on local or regional growthcharacteristics. The following methods are recom-mended by the Natural Resources Conservation Ser-vice (NRCS).
(1)Temperature method
FAO Modified Blaney-Criddle (FAO Paper 24)Modified Blaney-Criddle (SCS Technical Re-lease No. 21). This method is being maintainedfor historical and in some cases legal signifi-cance. See appendix A, NEH, Part 623, Chapter2, Irrigation Water Requirements.
(2)Energy method
Penman-Monteith method
(3)Radiation method
FAO Radiation method (FAO Paper 24)
(4)Evaporation pan method
 The FAO Modified Blaney-Criddle, Penman-Monteith,and FAO Radiation equations represent the mostaccurate equations for these specific methods. Theyare most accurately transferable over a wide range of climate conditions. These methods and equations arealso widely accepted in the irrigation profession today(ASCE 1990). The intended use, reliability, and availability of localclimatic data may be the deciding factor as to whichequation or method is used. For irrigation schedulingon a daily basis, an
energy 
method, such as the Pen-man-Monteith equation, is probably the most accuratemethod available today, but complete and reliablelocal real time climatic data must be available. Forirrigation scheduling information on a 10+ day averagebasis, use of a
radiation 
method, such as FAO Radia-tion, or use of a local evaporation pan, may be quitesatisfactory.For estimation of monthly and seasonal crop waterneeds, a
temperature 
based method generally provesto be quite satisfactory. The FAO Modified Blaney-Criddle equation uses long-term mean temperaturedata with input of estimates
 
of relative humidity, windmovement, and sunlight duration. This method alsoincludes an adjustment for elevation. The FAO Radia-tion method uses locally measured solar radiation andair temperature.

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