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Swine Flu in North America

Swine Flu in North America

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Published by Neelesh Bhandari
Review of the Current Swine Flu in North America
Review of the Current Swine Flu in North America

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Published by: Neelesh Bhandari on Apr 25, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/01/2013

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4/25/2009
 1
Mark IV Medical Communications, India.(www.markivmedical.com)
Swine Flu Epidemic in North America
Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by
typeA influenza viruses.
Sometimes it may spread to Humansand cause flu-like symptoms
.
It usually causes common flu-likesymtoms, but is occasionally fatal.The virus is influenza A virus, carrying the designation H1N1. It is ahybrid reassorted virus and contains DNA typical to avian, swine andhuman viruses, including elements from European and Asian swineviruses. It clasically causes outbreaks from Mid March to mid May andcommonly presents as fever, headache, fatigue and cough. As yet,none of the Eight Swine flu cases diagnosed in US has proved fatal,though sources report about 80 fatal cases in Mexico in the past fewweeks.Current situation-In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human swineinfluenza virus infection every one to two years in the U.S., but fromDecember 2005 through February 2009, a total of 12 human infectionswith swine influenza were reported from 10 states in the UnitedStates. Since March 2009, a number of confirmed human cases of anew strain of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in California,Texas, and Mexico have been identified.
 
 
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In the Federal District of Mexico, surveillance began picking up casesof ILI starting 18 March. The number of cases has risen steadilythrough April and as of 23 April there are now more than 854 cases of pneumonia from the Mexican capital. Of the Mexican cases, 18 havebeen laboratory confirmed in Canada as Swine Influenza A/H1N1,while 12 of those are genetically identical to the Swine InfluenzaA/H1N1 viruses from California. The US has 8 confirmed cases withinAmerica and has tested atleast 14 specimens from Mexico, of whichseven tested positive.
The regions currently affected have always shown an infection ratehigher than the national average
.WHO has now activated its Strategic Health Operations Center (SHOC)-its command and control center for acute public health events.Life Cycle of Swine Flu virus-Birds like Ducks, geese and swans are common reservoirs of Influenzavirus and can harbor the virus without showing symptoms of thedisease.
 
New England — 1.5%Mid-Atlantic — 2.9%East North Central — 1.9%West North Central — 1.7%South Atlantic — 2.2%East South Central — 2.5%
West South Central — 4.8%
Mountain — 1.5%
Pacific — 3.0%National average- 2.4%
Mean Prevalence of Influenza in U.S
 
 
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Pigs most commonly get infected with flu viruses from other pigs(swine flu), but also can get infected with flu viruses from birds (avianflu), and from people (human flu). This cross-species spread of fluviruses can lead to new types of flu viruses. Pigs may sometimesharbor the virus without exhibiting any overt symtoms.Studies have shown that 30% to 50% of commercial U.S. swine havebeen infected with swine flu. H1N1 and H3N2 swine flu viruses areendemic among pig populations in the United States. Recent studieshave shown that 15% to 25% of swine farmers might have beeninfected with swine flu viruses, as well as about 10% of veterinarians.
Why are Pigs important in this cycle
?Replication of avian influenza viruses in pigs may allow them to adaptto and be able to efficiently infect mammals, and ultimately be
 
Signs of swine flu in pigs include:
 
coughing (“barking”)
 
discharge from the nose
 
sneezing
 
breathing difficulties
 
going off feed

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