© Copyright Wayne P. Thomas & Virginia P. Collier, 1997 3
Overview of This Study for Decision-Makers
14A.The long-term picture14B.Key findings of this study15C.Study designed to answer urgent school policy questions16III.
Development of This Study
18A.Limitations of typical short-term program evaluations18B.Common misconceptions of “scientific”research in education191.Research questions on effectiveness192.Research methodology in effectiveness studies20a.Inappropriate use of random assignment20b.Statistical conclusion validity21c.External validity23d.Other internal validity concerns243.Research reviews on program effectiveness in LM education24C.Analyzing program effectiveness in our study26D.Magnitude of our study30IV.
Our Findings: The “How Long” Research
32A.How long: Schooling only in L232B.How long: Schooling in both L1 and L235C.Summary of “How long” findings for English Language Learners36D.How long: Bilingual schooling for native-English speakers36E.How long: Influence of student background variables371. Proficiency in L1 and L2372.Age373.Student’s first language (L1)384.Socioeconomic status385.Formal schooling in L139