a weekly chronicle of the Chinese economy
Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. The forecasts given above are predictive in character. Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure that the assumptions on which the forecasts are based arereasonable, the forecasts may be affected by incorrect assumptions or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties. The results ultimately achieved may differ substantially from these forecasts.
The interbank liquidity squeeze continues.
noted in this chronicle a week ago that a number of regulatoryinitiatives were combining to crowd a high proportion of banksonto the bid side of the market. With data up to March,
estimated that around $US90bn of foreign currencywould have to be purchased by the Chinese banking systemto meet the new SAFE regulations by July 1. At the beginningof June there was still a major dollar purchasing task ahead– about $US63bn – the sudden urgency of which has beenreflected in the disruptive moves in interbank rates and inthe FX market. Within the last week SAFE has shown someforbearance towards foreign bank branches by softening theirtargets, but has shown no sign of letting up on domestic banks.
The People’s Bank has refrained from injecting abnormalamounts of liquidity to alleviate the squeeze, even with reportssurfacing of a default by a medium sized local bank. With dataon open market operations up to the current week, while therehas been a net injection of funds in the month to date, it hasbeen delivered passively via bill and repo maturities. Activeliquidity boosting operations, i.e. the initiation of reverse repos,have been absent, while small bill and repo issuance has mildlydiluted the gross passive injection. Indeed, the weekly netinjection has got progressively smaller week by week since Junebegan, which is hardly indicative of concern on the behalf of themonetary arbiter.
has been at pains to emphasizethat the Chinese banking system’s current liquidity scrambleis a regulatory/policy choice. A squeeze by fiat, if you will. Theloan to deposit ratio for commercial banks if around 65%, 19.5%of the deposit pool sits latent as required reserves, RMB lendinggrowth is running below deposit growth and the country remainsa huge net international lender. This is not some tin pot frontiermarket being cast back upon an insufficient internal savingspool by a sudden withdrawal of external financing. The twinspikes in the SHIBOR and NDF curves should recede withoutfuss once the regulatory distortions work through the system.
The flash estimate of the June Markit-HSBC PMI surveydeteriorated sharply. The overall result was poor and the detailworse. The headline PMI fell to 48.3 in June from 49.2 inMay.
notes that there were downward revisionsbetween the flash and the final estimate in May, which impliedthat momentum was weakening going into June. The forwardlooking aspects of the detail were also soft in May, with thenew orders to inventories ratio falling away noticeably. So thedirection of change it not a surprise here – it is the scale ofdecline that is unanticipated. New export orders have beensoft: they are now unambiguously terrible. At 44.0 (down 4.9ptsfrom May), the survey is consistent with a material decline inworld trade overall, noting that China is now the world’s largestexporter, making it as useful a proxy as any of underlying globaltrends.
noted a steep fall in shipments to Europein the May trade data and underwhelming outcomes elsewhere.Presumably external demand conditions have worsened since.The majority of sub-indices shifted adversely, including orders,employment, production, output prices, and purchases quantity.Two months ago the overall impression from the PMI was oneof a manufacturing sector that was expanding, albeit modestly,with an OK domestic order book and a poor external equivalent.This update portrays an export sector that is in real trouble anda domestic economy in no position to fully absorb that negativeshock. This is a most inauspicious debut for the month of June.
20 June 2013
Westpac Institutional Banking Group – Economic Research – email@example.com – www.westpac.com.au
NBS new orders*NBS new export orders*Markit-HSBC new export ordersMarkit-HSBC new orders
Sources: CEIC, Markit*Seasonally adjusted byWestpac Economics.
New orders & export orders: PMI measuresFX reserves, capital flows & bank FX positions
Other FDI inflowTrade balanceChange in FX reservesNet bank FX settlement
Sources: CEIC, Westpac
Stats of the week: China’s online retail sales grew at acompound annual rate of 91% between 2007 and 2012.
People’s Bank open market operations
Reverse repo maturitiesRepoBills issuedBill maturitiesReverse repoRepo maturitiesNet injection/withdrawal
Sources: CEIC, Westpac
First ‘non-passive’withdrawal viarepo sinceJune 2012.First billissuessinceDec-11.Juneto date(the 20
7-day SHIBOR & the CNY NDF curve
234567890.51.01.52.02.5Sep-12Nov-12Jan-13Mar-13May-13%pa%chgCNY NDF 12mth (lhs)1 week SHIBOR (rhs)
Sources: WestpacEconomics, CEIC.