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Published by: European Southern Observatory on May 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o .7 5-M a rc h1 9 9 4
T E L E S C O P E S
A N D
IN S T R U M E N T A T IO N
1
R e -in v ig o ra tin g th eN TTa saNew T e c h n o lo g y
T e le s c o p e
D .B A A D E ,E .G IR A U ~ ,
P H .G I~ O N ,
F !G L A V E S ,D.G O JA K .G.M A T H Y S ,R . R O J A S ,
J .S T O R M a n d A .W ALLANDER,E S O
I.In tro d u c tio n
T h e ju s tific a tio n fo r b u ild in g th e3 .5 -m
N ewT e c h n o lo g y T e le s c o p e(M T j w e n t
w e ll
b e y o n d
a
m e re
q u a n tita tiv e
in -
c re a s eo fth e re s e a rc h o p p o rtu n itie sfo r
th ec o m m u n ity a fte r lta tya n d S w itz e r-
la n dh a d jo in e dE S O (W o ltje r 1 9 8 0 ): w ith
th eN ll\u20ac S Ow is h e d tod e m o n s tra te th e
f~ a s ib ilityo f th e te c h n o lo g lc a la n d c o n -
c e p tu a l b re a k th ro u g h w h ic h is re q u ire d
fo rth e tra n s itio n fro m c o n v e n tio n a l te le -
s c o p e s
t o
th e
V e ry
L a rg e
T e le s c o p e
(VLr).
A tre a d ya t firs t llg h t, th ev ia b ilityo f th e
a c tiv e o p tic sp rin c ip lea n d th e b e n e fits
o fav e ryc o m p a c t e n c lo s u re w e re lm -
p r e s s iv e lyc o n firm e d (W lls o n1 9 8 9 ) w ith
a ne ffe c tiv e Im a g eq u a lityo f0 .3 3
a rc -
sec.
C o m p a ris o n
w ith
th e
m e a s u re -
m e n tso b ta in e d w ith thed iffe re n tia ls +
e in g m o n lto r (D IM M 2 )o n V iz c a c h a sa n d
L aS illa s h o w s th a t th e

p m b a b llltyof e n c o u n te rin gs u c ha g o o ds e e in ge v e n in the

e x c e lle n t p e r io do f 1 9 8 8 -1 9 9 0
h a r d lye v e re x c e e d e d1 -2
%
fo ro n e -
h o u ra v e ra g e s(S a ra z in1 9 9 0 ).T h e fa c t
th a t th e
e x p o s u re tim e s
a tfirs tlig h t
w e rea s s h o rt a s 1 0 s e c o n d s(th e in s tru -
mentr o ta to r w asn o ty e t in s ta lle d ) m a y ,
th e re fo re , h a v e h e lp e d(s e e a ls o S a ra z in
1 8 8 9 ).T h e

le g e n d In s is ts Ina n y c a s e th a tt h e c o in c id e n c eo f fir s t lig h t a n dth e b irth d a y o f th e fa th e r o f th e a c tiv e o p tic s c o n c e p t,R ay W ils o n , w e re in s tr u m e n ta l fo r th is e a rlys u c c e s s .

Ith a so fte nb e e n re m a rk e dth a t a fte r
th ec o m m is s io n in g p e r io dth e N lla p -
p a re n tlyn e v e r fu llyre p e a te d th is e a rly
p e rfo rm a n c e .H o w e v e r,i td e s e rv e s t o
b en o te d th a t s in c e th ee n do f1 9 9 0 th e
a v e ra g esw in g
re c o rd e dw ith
D IM M 2
k e p td e te rio ra tin g u n tilth e
m id d le o f
1 9 9 3
w hen
a
d ra m a tic
im p ro v e m e n t
s ta rte dw h ic hs tillh a sn o t le v e lle do f f .
T h em o s tr e c e n t d a taa re fu lly c o m p a r-
a b let o th e1 9 8 8 -1 9 9 0
L a S iltad a taa n d
th e
P a ra n a l
m e a s u re m e n ts
(S a w in
1 9 9 4 ).A
m ared e ta lld re p o rtb y M a rc
S a ra z lnw ill a p p e a r ino n eo f th e n e x t
is s u e s
o f
T h e
M essenge~:M o re o v e r,
p re lim in a rya n a ly s is o f6 n ig h tsw o rth o f
S U S lo b s e w a tio n s in J a n u a ry1 9 9 4 , d u r-
in g w h ic hD IM M 2m e a s u re da ne x te rn a l
s e e in g(a v e ra g e do v e rth ea c tu a l d u ra -
tio no f th e
in d iv id u a l SU Sl e x p o s u re s )
of0 .6 5k
0.15a rc s e c , In d ic a te s th a t,i f
a n y th in g , th eN + !Td e liv e r e d s lig h tly b e t-
te r Im a g e s th a n p re d ic te db y D IM M 2 .
Ina n y e v e n t, s u ffic ie n tly m a n y e x c e l-
le n to b s e w a tio n sh a v eb e e n o b ta in e dt o
ra is eth ee x p e c ta tio n s o f th e o b s e rv e rs
c o m m u n ity
s u b s ta n tia lly
a b o v e
th e
tra d itio n a l le v e l. H o w e v e r,th e s e h o p e s
h a v e
o fte n
b e e n
d is a p p o in te d .
T h e
s p e c ific te c h n ic a l re a s o n s a re
d iv e rs e
b u t o fte nr e la tet oala c ko f re lia b ility .
W 'iRth e b e n e fit o f h in d s ig h ti ti so b v io u s
to d a yth a t th e c o m m is s io n in g p e r io d o f
th e N IT w a s to os h o rta n d th ec o m p le x -
Ity ofth e
N T Ta n d
itss u b s y s te m
re -

q u ire s m o re a tte n tio n th a n c o rre s p o n d s m e re lyt oth eI n c r e a s e in th e n u m b e ro f te le s c o p e so nL a S llla fr o me le v e nt oa

dm n.
T h e p o te n tla l o f th eN TT in p re p a rin g
fo rth eV L T
w a s re -e m p h a s iz e db yJ .
S c h w a rs a c tin ga s a n e x te rn a l a d v is e r to
th eD ire c to r G e n e ra l. S ta rtin g inA u g u s t
1993, ESO
h a s th e re fo re
p e rfo rm e d
a
d e ta ile d a n a ly s is o f th e p re s e n t s ta tu s o f
th e

N l T a n d v a rio u s s tra te g ie s fo r im - p ro v e m e n ts . W ith th e s u p p o rt a n d e n - c o u ra g e m e n t

o f
th e
E S O
c o m m itte e s

c o n c e rn e d a n d th e W o rk in g G ro u p S c i- e n tific P rio ritie s fo r L a S illa , a c o n c e r te d e ffo rt is n o w b e in g u n d e rta k e n to m o re fu lly e x p lo it th e p o te n tia l o f th eN lT , in th e in te re s t o f its o w n u s e rs a s w e ll a s o f the VLT.

2 . O b je c tiv e s o f a n N TT U p g r a d e
F ro m
th e
a b o v e
it is
c le a r th a t th e
m o s t im m e d ia te
o b je c tiv e
m ust be
t o
s ta b iliz e
th e
p e rfo rm a n c e
o f th e
N lT .

O n c e th is h a s b e e n a c h ie v e d , b e tte r u s e s h o u ld b e m a d e o f th eN l T in p re p a ra - tio n

fo r th e
o p e ra tio n
o f th e

VLT. This le a d s t o o b je c tiv e s N o s .2a n d 3 , n a m e ly t o

te s t th e V LT
c o n tro l s y s te m
a n d
t o
v e rify th e V L T o p e ra tio n s
c o n c e p t w ith
th eN lT .

T o a c h ie v e th e la tte r g o a ls w ill n o t b e in e x p e n s iv e . H o w e v e r, a n y m a jo r te e th - in g p r o b le m s o f th e V L T w ill b e in c o m - p a r a b ly m o r e c o s tly . T h eN l T is th e o n ly E S O

te le s c o p e
w h ic h
p r o v id e s
a
s u it-
a b le p la tfo rm
fo r th e s e e ffo rts b e c a u s e
in
m any
w ays
it a n tic ip a te s
V LT
c o n -
c e p ts .
A lth o u g h
im p le m e n tio n
o f
th e
V LT c o n tro l s y s te m
a n d o p e ra tio n s p la n
a re n o t re q u ire d fro m
a p u reN l T p o in t
o f v ie w , it is a ls o c le a r th a t th e te c h n ic a l
r e a liz a tio n
o f th e
p re s e n t N lT
c o n tro l

s y s te m d o e s n o t o ffe r m u c h o f a n o p tio n fo r g ra d u a l b u t s ig n ific a n t u p g ra d e s . F o r in s ta n c e , o n ly c o m p le te re p la c e m e n t o f th e c o m p u te r h a rd w a re w ill g iv e th e N lT a n e w lo n g -te rm

p e rs p e c tiv e .
T h e s e
th re e
o b je c tiv e s
w ill b e
p u r-
s u e d in th re e c o n s e c u tiv e
p h a s e s , I,I I ,
a n d Ill.
3 .P h a s e s o f Im p le m e n ta tio n
F o r te c h n ic a l re a s o n s , w e
start w ith

th e c o n s tra in ts w h ic h d e fin e th e b e g in - n in g o f P h a s eII: M u c h o f th e ju s tific a tio n fo r

u p g r a d in g
th e
N lT
c o n tro l s y s te m
d e riv e s fro m th e e x p e c te d fe e d b a c k in to
th e
v e r s io n
t o
b e
in s ta lle d
a t th e
V L T .
A c c o rd in g ly , th eN l T s c h e d u le is d e te r -
m in e d
b y
th e
tim e ta b le
fo r
th e
V L T .
S in c e
th e
v e ry
firs t
te s ts
o f th e
T e le -
s c o p e
C o n tro l S o ftw a re
(T C S ) s h o u ld
n o t b e p e rfo rm e d
w ith
a w o r k in g
te le -

s c o p e , th e o rig in a l p la n fo re s a w th a t th e N T T w o u ld o n ly s e e b u ild2 o f th e T C S a fte r

b u ild
1
h a d
b e e n
th o ro u g h ly

c h e c k e d d u rin g th e E u ro p e a n a s s e m b ly o f th e m e c h a n ic a l s tru c tu re o f u n it te le - s c o p e N o . 1 in M ila n . W ith th e c u rre n t s c h e d u le

o f th e
M ila n
te s ts
e x te n d in g

in to th e firs t w e e k s o f 1 9 9 6 b u t n o d e la y o f fir s t lig h t, a m o r e c lo s e ly in te r le a v e d te s t p a tte rn w ill h a v e to

b e d e v e lo p e d .
T h e o th e r c o n s tra in t is th a t in o rd e r to
h a v e a p ro fo u n d e ffe c t o n th e a c tu a l V L T
c o n tro l s y s te m , fu ll
in s ta lla tio n
a t th e
N lT
s h o u ld
com m ence
a s
e a rly
a s
p o s s ib le . T h is w ill b e in la te 1 9 9 5 .
T h is
P h a s ell w ill la s t fo r a b o u t o n e
year. During the first 4-6

m o n th s , th e in s ta lla tio n w ill n o t p e r m it a n y s c ie n tific o b s e rv a tio n s to b e c a rrie d o u t. T h e re a f- te r th e p la n fo re s e e s o b s e rv a tio n s o n ly in s e r v ic e m o d e . T h e r e a s o n is th a t o n ly in th is w a y th e tw o m o s t im p o rta n t a n d a p p a re n tly c o n flic tin g re q u ire m e n ts c a n b e fu lfille d , n a m e ly t o

le t th e te le s c o p e
p ro d u c e
s c ie n tific
d a ta
a t th e
e a r lie s t

p o s s ib le m o m e n t a n d t o g iv e th e te c h n i- c a l s ta ff e n o u g h tim e t o fu llyre -c o m m is - s io n

th e
te le s c o p e .
S e r v ic e
o b s e rv e rs
c a n
m ore
e a s ily
c o p e
w ith
te m p o ra ry ,
v a r y in g , a n d
n o t p ro p e rly
d o c u m e n te d
o p e ra tin g
c o n d itio n s .

F le x ib le s c h e d u l- in g c a n e n s u re th a t a lw a y s th e te c h n i- c a lly

m ost
s u ita b le
a n d

s c ie n tific a lly m o s t im p o rta n t p ro g ra m m e s a re c a rrie d o u t.

P h a s e
Ic o v e rs
th e
p e rio d
b e tw e e n
n o w
a n d t h e b e g in n in g o f P h a s e II. Its
p rim a ry a im
is to s ta b iliz e th e p e rfo rm -
a n c e
o f th e
N lT
T h is
w ill
m a in ly
b e
d o n e
b y
in tr o d u c in g
a
m ore
rig o ro u s
o p e ra tio n s
m o d e l o f w h ic h
m ore
c o n -
tin u o u s
m o n ito rin g
o f th e
p e rfo rm a n c e
w ill b e
a n

e s s e n tia l c o m p o n e n t. S u b - s ta n tia l te c h n ic a l im p ro v e m e n ts a re n o t fo re s e e n . T h e e m p h a s is w ill ra th e r b e o n ro b u s tn e s s , tra n s p a re n c y , a n d q u a n tita - tiv e

a c c o u n ta b ility .
If
m a jo r

re p a irs s h o u ld tu r n o u t to b e n e c e s s a ry , it w ill in e a c h c a s e b e c o n s id e re d w h e th e r a lo w - e r lo s s o f s c ie n tific o p p o r tu n itie s w o u ld b e

in c u rre d
if
th e y
w e re
p o s tp o n e d
u n til P h a s eII. C le a rly , th e
p re p a ra tio n
o f
P h a s e
II
w ill
c o n tin u e
th ro u g h o u t
P h a s e I.

F in a lly , d u r in g P h a s eIll a ls o th e m o d - e l fo r o p e ra tio n o f th e V L T , w h ic h is d u e fo r th e

C o u n c il m e e tin g
in
D ecem ber
1 9 9 4 ,
s h o u ld
b e
te s te d
a n d
im -
p le m e n te d s te p b y s te p . In th is w a y , th e
N TT
w o u ld
lo g ic a lly
becom e
th e
firs t
(fifth )
u n it
te le s c o p e
o f
th e
V LT
a n d
s e rv e a s a tra in in g c a m p fo r fu tu re V L T
o p e ra tio n s s ta ff.

Phases I andII h a v e b e e n a p p ro v e d , th e ir im p le m e n ta tio n is p r o c e e d in g . T h e d is c u s s io n

o f
P h a s e
I ll
w ill
c o n tin u e
d u rin g th e p re p a ra tio n o f th e V LT O p e r-
a tio n s P la n .
4 .O p e ra tio n a l F ra m e w o rk
T h e m a in o rg a n iz a tio n a l m e a s u re ta -
k e n h a s b e e n to fo rm
a d e d ic a te d te a m
w h ic h

a s o f A p ril1 ,1 9 9 4 w ill b e p u t in fu ll c h a rg e o f th eN l 7 . O n L a S illa , th is NTT Team

c u rre n tly
c o m p r is e s2
s o ft-
w a re (P G
a n d
R R ), 1 e le c tr o n ic s
(D G ),
a n d
1
o p to -m e c h a n ic s

(P h G ) e n g in e e r a s w e ll a s tw o a s tro n o m e rs (G M [a ls o in c h a rg e o f th e

lo c a l c o o r d in a tio n
o n
L a
S illa ] a n d
JS). In
G a r c h in g , w e
s o

fa r h a v e o n e s o ftw a re e n g in e e r (A W-s o ft- w a re g ro u p

le a d e r a n d

r e s p o n s ib le fo r re -b u ild in g th e c o n tro l s y s te m ) a n d o n e a s tro n o m e r

(D B
-
p r o je c t
s c ie n tis t).
V a c a n c y
n o tic e s
fo r
o n e
a s tro n o m e r
e a c h a t b o t h s ite s h a v e b e e n p u b lis h e d
re c e n tly . T h is e d itio n o f th e
M essenger
c o n ta in s
th e
a d v e rtis e m e n t o f a
p o s t-
d o c to ra l fe llo w s h ip
p o s itio n w h ic h
IS
t o

b e re -fille d a t th e e n d o f 1 9 9 4 . F u rth e r- m o re , tw o m o re s o ftw a re e n g in e e rs w ill b e re c ru ite d

s o o n . T h e y w ill s ta r t th e ir
w o rk
i n
G a r c h in g
b u t fo r
P h a s e

II b e tra n s fe rre d t o L a S illa to g e th e r w ith o n e c u rre n t

m em ber
o f
th e
V LT
s o ftw a re
g ro u p
(E ric A lla e r t) in G a r c h in g . F in a lly ,
th e
N lT
T e a m
I S
h a p p y th a t
E dm ond
G ira u d
w as
g iv e n
th e
o p p o rtu n ity
t o
ta k e le a v e o f a b s e n c e fro m
th eO b s e r-

v a to ire d e M a rs e ille in o rd e r to re tu rn to L a S illa fo r o n e y e a r a n d t o w o r k w ith th e N lT Team

u n til its s c ie n tific s ta ff c o m -
p le m e n t is c o m p le te .
In th e d o m a in s
o f e le c tr o n ic s ,o p to -
m e c h a n ic s , a n d
a ll s ta n d -b y
s e r v ic e s ,
th e a b o v e s ta ffin g le v e l is fa r fro m

b e in g s u ffic ie n t t o fu lly c o v e r a ll n e e d s o f th e N T T . A re a s s u c h a s d e te c to rs , m a in te - n a n c e

a n d
c o n s tru c tio n ,

w ir in g , m e c h a n ic s , c o m p u te r n e tw o rk in g , e tc ., a re

n o t
a ll
re p re s e n te d
o n
th e

N l7 T e a m . T h is is in te n d e d b e c a u s e fu ll s e lf- s u ffic ie n c y w o u ld n o t b e a r e a lis tic g o a l if th e c o s ts a re t o b e a ffo rd a b le . T h e re - fo re , th e d a ily o p e ra tio n o f th e N T T w ill c o n tin u e t o re ly s tro n g ly o n th e s u p p o rt b y

n u m e ro u s te c h n ic a l s e rv ic e s o n
L a
S illa , e s p e c ia lly th e
O p e ra tio n s

G ro u p . O n a ro ta tin g s c h e d u le , a fix e d n u m b e r o f n ig h t a s s is ta n ts

w ill
m a in ta in
c lo s e
fa m ilia rity w ith th eN n . In fa c t, th e m o s t
fu n d a m e n ta l ro le o f th e
NTT Team
w ill
b e
t o
in te g ra te
a
b ro a d
s p e c tru m
o f

e x p e rtis e in to o n e jo in t c o n c e p t. E s p e - c ia lly a s tro n g e r u n ific a tio n o f E S O -C h ile a n d

E S O -G a rc h in g
w ill
h a v e
p ilo t

c h a ra c te r a ls o fo r th e o p e ra tio n o f th e V LT . T h e a d e q u a c y o f th e p re s e n t s ta f- fin g le v e l w ill b e c a r e fu lly m o n ito r e d a n d , if n e c e s s a ry , fu rth e r a d ju s te d .

A t le a s t d u r in g P h a s e I, t h e o p e r a tio n o f IR S P E C w ill n o t b e d ir e c tly in te g r a te d in to

th e
r e s p o n s ib ilitie s
o f
th e
NTT
T e a m . S in c e th e In fra re d T e a m
is g e n e r -
a lly a c k n o w le d g e d t o fu n c tio n w e ll, th e
c h a n c e s
o f
im m e d ia te

im p ro v e m e n ts a re re la tiv e ly m in o r w h e re a s th e p ric e to b e p a id fo r a d is c o n tin u ity c o u ld b en o n - n e g lig ib le . T h is a p p r o a c h is , o f c o u r s e , m a d e e a s ie r b y th e p re s e n t la c k o f c o n - c re te p la n s fo r th e

u p g ra d in g (o r e v e n
re p la c e m e n t) o f IR S P E C .
5 .P h a s eI
B e c a u s e
o f
th e ir
la rg e
n u m b e r, w e
h e re o n ly
list th e
a c tiv itie s
in e x tre m e
b re v ity :
0
P e rfo rm
c o m p le te in v e n to ry o f p r o b -
le m s a n d a s s e ts .
0
C o m p le te c o m m is s io n in g o f N T T a n d
a c c o m p lis h tra n s fe r o f k n o w -h o w
t o
NTT Team .
E s ta b lis h a u to m a tic
o p e ra tio n o f a c -
tiv e
o p tic s
s y s te m

a s d e fa u lt m o d e ; u s e-8 0%o f lig h t fro m g u id e s ta r fo r c o n tin u o u s im a g e a n a ly s is a n d te le - s c o p e

a u to fo c u s s in g .
M ake
re s u lts
m o re
tra n s p a re n t to
u s e rs ; p e rfo rm
a u to m a tic
q u a lity
a n d
p la u s ib ility
c h e c k s .

In a d d itio n t o th e L a S illa s ite m o n ito r, u s e s e c o n d g u id e p r o b e in N a s m y th s ta tio n B(E M M I) fo r in d e p e n d e n t im - a g e

q u a lity
m o n ito rin g
a n d
lo g
N TT
d o m e -in te rn a l

m e te o ro lo g ic a l c o n d i- tio n s . T h e o b je c tiv e is t o id e n tify c o n - s te lla tio n s

w h ic h
s ig n ific a n tly
com -
p ro m is e th e
e ffe c tiv e
N T T s e e in g . A
p ro to ty p e
o f
th e
V LT
e n c lo s u re
m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m
w ill
b e

d e v e l- o p e d fo r th eN I T in o r d e r t o a c tiv e ly m in im iz e d e g r a d a tio n .

ln tro d u c e
re g u la r c o m p u te r
s y s te m
m anagem ent
(b a c k -u p s ,
c o n fig u ra -
tio n c o n tro l, lo a d m o n ito rin g , e tc .).
P e rh a p s u p g ra d e C P U

of NTT com - p u te r; if u n a v o id a b le d itto fo r o p e ra t- in g s y s te m . T h e p re s e n t w o rk lo a d o f th e

N TTc o m p u te r ru n s a t a le v e l o f
6 0%
o f its c a p a c ity . T h is h a d fo r a
w h ile
b e e n
s e e n
a s
o n e
p o s s ib le
re a s o n fo r o n e
o r m o re
o f th e
re a l-
tim e
n o d e s
(a ltitu d e
a x is ,
a z im u th
a x is , a n d
ro ta to r) o fte n
lo s in g
s y n -
c h ro n iz a tio n
w ith the
N T T c o m p u te r.
H o w e v e r, s in c e S e p te m b e r 1 9 9 3 th is
p ro b le m
h a s e s s e n tia lly v a n is h e d a f-
te r a b u g
in the
re c o v e ry p ro c e d u re
h a d b e e n d is c o v e re d a n d c o rre c te d .
In s ta ll
c o m p u te r-b a s e d
p ro b le m
tra c k in g s y s te m
fo r re p o rtin g
by us-
e rs , fo llo w -u p

b y m a in te n a n c e s ta ff, a n d a s a s o u rc e o f re c ip e s fo r fu tu re p ro b le m s .

D ocum ent
lim itin g
p e rfo rm a n c e
o f
te le s c o p e a n d in s tru m e n ts . C o m p a ri-
s o n
o f
a c tu a l re s u lts

a g a in s t th e s e re fe re n c e d a ta w ill e n a b le e a rly r e c - o g n itio n o f a n o m a lie s a s w e ll a s fa ls e a la rm s .

R e g u la r ly
m e a s u re
k e y
c h a ra c te ris -
tic s o f C C D

d e te c to rs . P ro v id e s im - p lifie d p ro c e d u re s fo r c h e c k s a ls o b y V is itin g A s tro n o m e rs .

S te p b y s te p id e n tify a re a s in n e e d o f
re g u la r p re v e n tiv e m a in te n a n c e .
In tro d u c e
p ro c e d u re s
to w a rd s
p u t-
tin g
s o ft- a n d
h a rd w a re u n d e r s tric t
c o n fig u ra tio n c o n tro l.
C o n tin u e
re m o te
o b s e rv in g
fro m
G a rc h in g
a t m o d e s t le v e l. T h is
o b -

s e w in g m o d e h a d a ra th e r s u c c e s s fu l s ta rt (B a le s tra e t a l. 1 9 9 3 , B a a d e e t a l. 1 9 9 3 ) a n d h e lp s t o e n s u re th a t th e L a S illa a n d G a r c h in g v ie w o f t h e N T T d o n o t d iffe r t o o w id e ly .

E x te n d s c o p e o f M ID A S D a ta O rg a n - iz e r(P e ro n e t a l. 1 9 9 4 ) to o n -lin e a p - p lic a tio n s

in o rd e r to

b e tte r s u p p o rt q u a lity a n d h e a lth c o n tr o l o f th e d a ta s e ts a c q u ire d .

E n h a n c e lo g g in g o f n o r m a l te le s c o p e
a n d
in s tru m e n t
o p e ra tio n s
a n d
u n -
s c h e d u le d
e v e n ts . U s e d a ta b a s e
t o
m e a s u re
o b s e rv in g
e ffic ie n c y
(la te r
c o m p a re
o ld
a n d
n e w

c o n tro l s y s - te m ), id e n tify p o s s ib le p ro b le m s a n d d e s ig n s o lu tio n s (fo r in s ta n c e , in th is w a y it w a s p o s s ib le t o tr a c k d o w na p ro b le m

in th e C C D c o n tro l s o ftw a re w h ic h c a u s e d th e d a ta to b e irre c o v - e r a b ly lo s t in a b o u t 1%

o f a ll c a s e s ) . P e rfo rm s e v e ra l fie ld te s ts o f in d iv id u - a l

c o m p o n e n ts
o f
th e
n e w
c o n tro l
s y s te m
(c f. S e c tio n P h a s eI!). A lw a y s
re tu rn to th e o ld s y s te m .
M o s t o f th e s e a c tiv itie s
h a v e s ta rte d
a lr e a d y . O b v io u s ly ,
th e y
re ly
in
m any
c a s e s
s tro n g ly
o n
th e
a c tiv e
s u p p o rt
a n d
a lw a y s
o n
th e
a d v ic e
b y
o th e r
g r o u p s a n d in d iv id u a ls a t E S O .

T o th e a b o v e lis t h a v e t o b e a d d e d t h e ro u tin e s u p p o r t o f V is itin g A s tro n o m e rs a n d

th e
re s c u e
o p e ra tio n s
in
c a s e
o f
a c u te
fa ilu re s .
H o w e v e r, th e
u ltim a te
p u rp o s e o f m a n y o f th e a b o v e m e a s u re s
is , o f
c o u rs e , th a t th e
in c id e n c e
a n d
s e v e rity o f o p e n c ris e s a n d la te n t p r o b -
le m s w ill b e s ig n ific a n tly r e d u c e d .
6 .P h a s eI 1
T h a t th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n e w
N TT
c o n tro l s y s te m
a c c o rd in g to V LT
s ta n -

d a rd s is a t a ll a ffo rd a b le , is d u e t o th e m o d u la r, la y e re d d e s ig n o f th e V LT c o n - tro l

s o ftw a re
w h ic h
fo re s e e s
a
la rg e
p ro p o rtio n
o f
s h a re d
g e n e ra l-p u rp o s e
u tilitie s
(R a ffi
1 9 9 2 ). T h e
N lT
e ffo rt,
th e n ,
la rg e ly c o n s is ts
in

im p le m e n tin g th e N T T s p e c ific a p p lic a tio n s o n t o p o f th is lo w e r-le v e l s o ftw a re . T h is w o rk h a s b e e n b ro k e n d o w n in to 1 9 w o rk c o m p o - n e n ts . T h e y c lo s e ly fo llo w th e s c h e d u le a c c o rd in g t o w h ic h th e V L T s o ftw a re is b e in g w ritte n . A t th e

sam e
tim e , th e y
p ro v id e
a n
a d d itio n a l
c o rs e t
t o
th a t
tim e ta b le
a n d
v ia
th e
a d v a n c e d
fie ld
te s ts
w ith
th e
N TT
som e
e x tra
c h e c k
p o in ts o f th e p ro d u c ts .

T h e firs t t w o te s ts a re s c h e d u le d fo r M ay 1994 and com prise the VLT Local C o n tro l U n it (L C U ) c o m m o n s o ftw a re in s ta n d -a lo n e m o d e a n d e m b e d d e d in th e V LT C e n tra l C o n tro l S o ftw a re (C C S ), re - s p e c tiv e ly . T h e

firs t a p p lic a tio n w ill b e
th e
c o n tro l o f th e
N T T b u ild in g . In a n
a n a lo g o u s fa s h io n , w o rk
com ponent 3

c o n c e rn s s e c o n d a ry a n d te rtia ry m irro r o f t h e N T T a n d w ill ta k e p la c e in S e p - te m b e r 1 9 9 4 .

O n e o f th e c e n tra l w o rk c o m p o n e n ts is th e c o n tro l s o ftw a re fo r E M M I. It p la y s a s p e c ia l r o le a ls o in s o fa r a s it h a s b e e n ta k e n o n b y th e s o ftw a re g ro u p o n L a

S illa(G . A n d re o n i a n dR . S c h m u tz e r a re th e m a in r e s p o n s ib le s ) . T h is is a m a jo r c o n tr ib u tio n o f th e L a S illa o b s e rv a to ry in the

fra m e w o rk
o f th e
V LT

d e v e lo p - m e n t. A lth o u g h th e s u p p o rt o f th e la tte r c a n n o t a t th is

p h a s e
b e
a
s ig n ific a n t
r e s p o n s ib ility
of La
S illa , it is , o n
th e
o th e r
h a n d ,
im p o rta n t
th a t
a ll
E S O
s ite s
s h a re
th e
sam e
te c h n ic a l
a n d
m e th o d o lo g ic a l
s ta n d a rd s .
T h e
EM M l
w o rk c o m p o n e n t is o n e m o re s te p in to
th is d ire c tio n .
Im p o rta n t
im p ro v e m e n ts
a re
e x -
p e c te d
fro m
th e
re p la c e m e n t
o f
th e
p re s e n t lS lTT V c a m e ra s w ith V LT te c h -
n ic a l
C C D
c a m e ra s .
H ig h e r
e ffe c tiv e
s e n s itiv ity ,
le s s e r
n o n -lin e a rity ,
la rg e r
d y n a m ic a l
ra n g e
com e
t o
e v e r y o n e 's
m in d
a s
e x p e c te d
im p ro v e m e n ts .
A t

le a s t a s im p o rta n t a p p e a rs th e re s u ltin g p o te n tia l o f d ir e c t d ig ita l s ig n a l p r o c e s s - in g w h ic h w ill, fo r in s ta n c e b y a u to m a tic d e te c tio n

a n d
c e n trin g
o f
s o u rc e s ,
n o tic e a b ly
e n h a n c e th e
o b s e rv in g
e ffi-
c ie n c y .-
A ls o
fo r th e
s c ie n tific
C C D s
t h e V L T C C D c o n tr o lle r w ill b e in s ta lle d ,
th e re b y
c lo s in g
a n o th e r fe e d b a c k

lo o p p rio r t o th e c o m in g in to o p e ra tio n o f th e V L T .

F o r s e le c te d o b s e rv in g m o d e s , fo r in - s ta n c e im a g in g th ro u g h fre q u e n tly u s e d s ta n d a rd filte rs a n d g ris m s p e c tro s c o p y , a n a tte m p t w ill b e m a d e t o m a in ta in a n o n - lin e

c a lib r a tio n
d a ta b a s e .
W hen
c o m b in e d
w ith
a u to m a tic
d a ta

re d u c - tio n p ro c e d u re s , th is w ill p e rm it th e o b - s e rv e r a q u a n tita tiv e o n -lin e q u a lity c o n - tro l. A lth o u g h p u b lic a tio n q u a lity m a y in m a n y c a s e s n o t b e a r e a lis tic g o a l, q u ic k a n d o b je c tiv e q u a lity c o n tr o l is o f c o u r s e o f c e n tra l im p o rta n c e in th e c a s e o f s e r- v ic e o b s e rv in g .

A c lo s e c o m p a n io n o f s e r v ic e o b s e r v -
in g w ill b e fle x ib le
s c h e d u lin g . A m o n g
th e
p o s s ib le o p e ra tio n s fe a tu re s w h ic h
a re
p re s e n tly
b e in g
d is c u s s e d
fo r th e
V LT , th is c o u p le c le a rly m a rk s th e m o s t
d ra s tic
d e v ia tio n
fro m
th e
s ta n d a rd
m o d e l fo r g ro u n d -b a s e d o b s e rv a to rie s .
P r o m is in g
th o u g h
th e

th e o re tic a l s u p p o rtin g a rg u m e n ts a re , w ith o u t p rio r p ra c tic a l te s ts

a n d
q u a n tita tiv e
m ea-
s u re m e n ts th e
ris k m ig h t b ein a c c e p t-
a b ly h ig h .
7.P h a s eI l l
T h e g o a l o f th is p e r io d w ill b e t o e s -
ta b lis h
a V L T -lik e o p e r a tio n s
m o d e l. In
o rd e r
t o
o b ta in

m e a n in g fu l fe e d b a c k a b o u t it, it is e s s e n tia l th a t th e h a rd w a re b e c h a n g e d a s little a s p o s s ib le . F o r a w h ile th is m a y a ls o m e a n th e e x c lu s io n o f

v is ito r
in s tru m e n ts .
P o s s ib le
u p -
g ra d e s w h ic h
m ig h t b e c o n s id e r e d
in -
c lu d e
th e
re p la c e m e n t
o f
IR S P E C
( w h ic h w a s fir s t in s ta lle d
a t th e
3 .6 -m
te le s c o p e in 1 9 8 5 a n d in P h a s e I ll w ill b e
ra th e r o ld
g iv e n
th e
e v e r a c c e le ra tin g

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