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Coastline Changes Sundaland

Coastline Changes Sundaland

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Coastline Changes Sundaland
Coastline Changes Sundaland

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Chinese Science Bulletin
 Springerwww.scichina.com | csb.scichina.com | www.springerlink.com
Chinese Science Bulletin
| July 2008 | vol. 53 | no. 13 |
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The records of coastline changes reflected bymangroves on the Sunda Shelf since the last 40 ka
WANG XiaoMei
, SUN XiangJun
, WANG PinXian
& Karl Stattegger
Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083, China;
Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China;
Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China;
Institute of Geosciences, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, Kiel 24118, Germany
This paper presents a 40000-year-long high-resolution mangrove record from sediments of Core 18300,18302 and 18323 on the continental shelf of the southern South China Sea and reconstructs the coast-line changes on Sunda Shelf since the last 40000 years. In the period Marine Isotope 3, the old SundaShelf had low sea level, and it was partly exposed. Flourishing vegetations grew on the exposed oldland. Mangroves developed along the coastline. On the Last Glacial Maximum, the sea level droppedgreatly, coastline moved from inner shelf to outer shelf, the Old Sunda Land exposed further, and thelowering sea level induced the gradual disappearing of mangroves from the inner Sunda Shelf to theouter Sunda Shelf. And pioneer vegetation ferns covered the broadly exposed old land immediately. Atthe time of the last Deglaciation, sea level rose greatly
the coastline moved to the sea and the SundaShelf was drown again. Mangroves were emergent again from outer shelf to inner shelf and developedquickly.
Sunda Shelf, Mangroves, Marine Isotope 3, the Last Glacial Maximum, the Last Deglaciation
Sunda Shelf, also called “Great Asian Bank”, the secondlargest continental shelf in the world, located in thesoutheast of semi-enclosed South China Sea. It is animportant channel connecting the South China Sea andthe Indian Ocean. During the Last Glacial Maximum,Borneo (up to 4101 m), Java (up to 3676 m) and Suma-tra (up to 4101 m) were connected together to becomethe “Sunda Land”
(Figure 1) and it occupied 180 mil-lions km
, extends up to 800 km at its widest section,characterized by a very low gradient of 1
9000, so alarge quantity of terriclastics accumulated in this region both today and during the Last Glacial Maximum. SundaLand, the most extensive land in the world beyond the polar region, was tectonically stable during the lateQuaternary, the slopes of the shelf is small from thecoast to the outer shelf, and a slight sea level changecould cause a large shift of the shoreline and there wereenough detrital material of terrigenous origin, especiallythe input of Old Sunda River, so large quantities of sediments were accumulated.Sonne cruise 115 (December 1996
January 1997)got a lot of high resolution sedimental records along atransect across the Sunda Shelf covering the last 50000years
and Hanebuth et al.
found the sea levelschanged greatly since the last deglaciation, The recon-structions of the sea-level curves of global validity
 also indicated there were several minor sea-level fluc-tuations during the past glacial cycle (Figure 1), but theydo not resolve shorter variations and also show discrep-ancies of up to tens of meters during certain time inter-vals. So there are no detailed studies about the coastline
Received January 8, 2007; accepted May 23, 2007doi: 10.1007/s11434-008-0278-5
Corresponding author (email:chouxiaoya_77@yahoo.com.cn)Supported by the National Key Basic Develop Research Program (Grant No.G2000078500)
WANG XiaoMei et al. Chinese Science Bulletin
| July 2008 | vol. 53 | no. 13 |
Figure 1
(a) The location of the studied area and cores; (b) SO115 transect on the Sunda Shelf (black line is the transect, grey refers to the exposedSunda Land; (c) the locations of studied cores(Modified from Hanebuth et al.
changes since the Marine Isotope 3 in Sunda Shelf. Be-cause mangroves most commonly found in the low en-ergy coastline of tropical and subtropical area and peri-odically drown by sea water, it is a perfect indictor of coastline changes
. The main aim of this paper is toreveal coastline changes in the Sunda Shelf based on thehigh resolution mangroves records from the Sunda shelf.
1 Material and methods
The three sediment cores (Table 1; Figure 1), SONNE18300(4°21
N, 108°39
E, 91m depth), 18302(4°09
E, 83 m depth) and 18323 (2°47
N, 107°53
E,92 m depth), discussed in this study were obtained dur-ing the R/V Sonne cruises 115 in December 1996
Table 1
The ages of the studied cores
 Corenumber Sample depth(cm)Sampled materialAMS-
C intercept(
C a BP)60—62 Bulk, organic fibres 12440 ± 70206 Bulk, organic fibres 12650 ± 60400 Root 12580 ± 60590—592 Bulk, organic fibres 21490 ± 3318300879—881 Bulk, organic fibres 39210 ± 31985 Wood 11520 ± 55410 Peaty 12335 ± 60410 Arcoid bivalve 11660 ± 4518302590 Bulk, organic fibres 20160 ± 33190—192 Bulk, organic fibres 14180 ± 60380—382 Bulk, organic fibres 23460 ± 16018323534—536 Bulk, organic fibres 22810 ± 120a) According to Hanebuth et al.
; Steinke et al.
January 1997
along a transect following the paleo-valley of the North Sunda River and the bordering pa-
WANG XiaoMei
et al. Chinese Science Bulletin
| July 2008 | vol. 53 | no. 13 |
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leo-river mouth down to the lower continental shelf.Each 10 mL in volume was collected at internals of 10and 20 cm. All samples were prepared for pollen andspore analysis at Tongji University using hot hydrochlo-ric and cold hydrofluoric acids to remove carbonates andsilicates. Further to concentrate the pollen and spore, thematerial remaining after the acid reactions was washedthrough a 7
m mesh in an ultrasonic basin bath. Morethan 200 pollen grains of land seed plants per samplewere counted (excluding fern spores and pollen of aquatics). The pollen concentrations were calculated bythe exotic pollen method (add 1 or 2 tablets of Lyco- podium spores, and every tablets contains 10680 Lyco- podium spores). The chronology is determined by AMS
C ages taken at the Leibniz-Laboratory.
2 Mangroves records in Palaeoecologi-cal sediments
The Mangroves in these three cores are mainly
Phizo- phora
and a few
2.1 Core 18300
The studied Station 18300 (7°11
N, 112°5
E) (Figure 1)located at the edge of entrenched valley. It was com- posed of different colors of mud and containing silt andorganic layers (Table 2). From the 8.85 m core, 52 pol-len samples were obtained at interval of 20 cm at 0
440 and 600
880 cm, 10 cm at 440
600 cm. The
Table 2
The lithology of Core 18300Depth (cm) Lithology0
29Grey mud containing silt29
94Calcareous deposit including slim organic layer 94
294Dark grey mud with fractional wood294
395Organic mud395
475Olive grey mud475
495Gray green mud495
795Gray yellow mud795
885Gray green mud
C ka BP at 206 cm is improper accordingto the comparison results of pollen and spore of thestudied three cores.Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) (8.8
6 m, about39.2
C ka BP) (Figure 2): Tree pollen is pre-dominated (70%), in which, mangroves changed from10% and 20%, Herbs, represented mainly by Cyperaceaeand Poaceae, are 20%. Ferns spores (mainly
and some trilete and monolete spores)occur in large numbers (40% of total pollen of land seed plants). The pollen concentrations are high in values.Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (6
4.8 m; 22.1
C ka BP): The differences are great compared tothe last time. Tree pollen declined from 70% to 50%, inwhich, mangroves almost vanished completely. Herbs(mainly Poaceae) increased from 30% to 50%. Fernsexacerbated from 40% of land weed plants to 700%, andin which
, a kind of tropical tree ferns was themain element of ferns, and tree ferns inclines to live in a
Figure 2
The pollen percentages and concentration of Tree, Herbs, Fern and Mangrove of Core 18300.

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