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Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration

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Published by: Dan Alexis Morco Arinzana on Aug 15, 2013
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12/11/2013

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Cellular respiration
is the set of themetabolicreactions and processes that take place in thecellsof  organismsto convertbiochemical energyfrom nutrients intoadenosine triphosphate(ATP), and then release waste products.
 The reactions involved in respiration arecatabolic reactions,which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds arereplaced by stronger bonds in the products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energyto fuel cellular activity. Cellular respiration is considered anexothermicredox reaction.The overall reaction is broken into many smaller ones when it occurs in the body, most of which are redox reactionsthemselves. Although technically, cellular respiration is acombustion reaction,it clearly does notresemble one when it occurs in a living cell. This difference is because it occurs in many separate steps.While the overall reaction is a combustion reaction, no single reaction that comprises it is a combustionreaction. Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration includesugar,amino acidsand fatty acids,and a commonoxidizing agent(electron acceptor)is molecular oxygen(O
2
). The energystored in ATP (its third phosphate group is weakly bonded to the rest of the molecule and is cheaply broken allowing stronger bonds to form, thereby transferring energy for use by the cell) can then be usedto drive processes requiring energy, includingbiosynthesis,locomotionor transportation of molecules acrosscell membranes. 
STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION(1) First stage of cellular respiration:
First stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. It occurs in the cytoplasm of cell. In this stage, glucose isdegraded and generates energy. There are two types of glycolysis present, one is aerobic glycolysis andanother is anaerobic glycolysis.In aerobic glycolytic pathway, glucose becomes oxidized in the presence of oxygen, and one molecule of glucose yields two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvate (also called pyruvic acid) and twomolecules of NADH. One molecule of NADH provides three molecules of ATP via the electron transportchain. Therefore, in aerobic glycolytic pathway, one molecule of glucose generates 8 molecules of ATP.Pyruvate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis enters into the mitochondria where it converted intoAcetyl CoA and produces two molecules of NADH by oxidative decarboxylation. Acetyl CoA takes partin second stage of cellular respiration for ATP generation and NADH provides ATP via the electrontransport chain.In anaerobic glycolytic pathway, glucose becomes oxidized without participation of oxygen, and eachmolecule of glucose provides two molecules of ATP and two molecules of lactate. Lactate is diffuses intothe blood circulation and taken up by the liver where it reconverted into glucose. Though anaerobicglycolysis provides only two molecules of ATP, it is a valuable source of ATP under several conditions,including in cells deprived of sufficient oxygen such as in hypoxic state, in shock and during heavyexercise, or in cells that lack mitochondria.
(2) Second stage of cellular respiration:

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