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Statutory Construction Latin Maxims

Statutory Construction Latin Maxims

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Published by Lee
Statutory Construction Latin Maxims
Statutory Construction Latin Maxims

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STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION LATIN MAXIMSCHAPTER II
 –
CONSTRUCTION ANDINTERPRETATIONB. POWER TO CONSTRUE
1. Legis interpretation legis vim obtinet.
 Judicial construction and interpretation of a statuteacquires the force of law.CHAPTER III
 –
AIDS TO CONSTRUCTIONC. CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION
2. Contemporanea exposition est optima et fortissimo in lege.
 Contemporary construction is strongest in law.
Optima est legum interpres consuetudo.
 Custom is the best interpreter of a statute.
Regula pro lege, si deficit lex.
 In default of the law, the maxim rules.
3. Optimus interpres rerum usus.
 The best interpreter of the law is usage.
Communis error facit jus.
 Common error sometimes passes as current law.
Quod ab initio non valet in tractu temporis non convalescit.
 That which was originally void, does not by lapse of timebecome valid.
4. Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur.
 Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate.
5. Stare decisis et non quieta movere.
 Follow past precedents and do not disturb what hasbeen settled.
Interest republicae ut sit finis litium.
 The interest of the state demands that there be an endto litigation.CHAPTER IV
 –
ADHERENCE TO, OR DEPARTUREFROM, LANGUAGE OF STATUTE LITERALINTERPRETATION
6. Index animi sermo est.
 Speech is the index of intention.
Animus hominis est anima scripti.
 The intention of the party is the soul.
Verba legis non est recedendum.
 From the words of the statute there should be nodeparture.
Maledicta et exposition quae corrumpit textum.
 It is bad construction which corrupts the text.
Littera scripta manet.
 The written word endures.
Clausula rebus sic stantibus.
 Things thus standing.
7. Absoluta sentential expositore non indigent.
 When the language of the law is clear, no explanation isrequired.
Dura lex sed lex.
 The law may be harsh but it is the law.
Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed ita lex scripta est.
 It is exceedingly hard, but so the law is written.B. DEPARTURE FROM LITERAL INTERPRETATION
8. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legis.
 Equity never acts in contravention of the law.
Aequum et bonum est lex legume.
 What is good and equal is the law of laws.
Jus ars boni et aequi.
 Law is the art of equity.
9. Ratio legis est anima legis.
 The reason of the law is the soul of the law.
Littera necat spiritus vivificate.
 The letter kills but the spirit gives life.
Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservice.
 Words ought to be more subservient to the intent, andnot the intent to the words.
Benignus leges interpretandae sunt, quod voluntas eraum conservetur.
 Laws are to be construed liberally, so that their spirit andreason be preserved.
Qui haret in littera haret in cortice.
 He who considers merely the letter of an instrumentgoes but skin deep into its meaning.
Quando verba statute sunt speciali, ratio autem generalia, statum generaliter est intelligendum.
 When the words used in a statute are special, but thepurpose of the law is general, it should be read as thegeneral expression.
10. Cessante rationi legis, cessat et ipsa lex.
 When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself ceases.
11. Interpretatio talis in ambiguis simper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum.
 Where there is ambiguity, the interpretation of such thatwill avoid inconveniences and absurdity is to be adopted.
Legis construction non facit injuriam.
 The construction of the law will not be such as to workinjury or injustice.
Argumentum ab inconvenient plurimum valet in lege.
  An argument drawn from inconvenience is forcible inlaw.
Verba nihil operari melius est quam absurde.
 It is better that words should have no operation at allthan that they should operate absurdly.
Lex simper intendit quod convenit rationi.
 The law always intends that which is in accordance withreason.
Ubi eadem ratio ibi idem jus.
 Like reason doth make like law.
Argumentum a simili valet in lege.
  An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy,prevails in law.
 
 
De similibus idem est judicium.
 Concerning similars, the judgment is the same.
Ubi eadem est ratio, ibi est eadem legis disposition.
 Where there is the same reason, there is the same law
12. Ea est accipienda interpretation quae vitio caret.
 That interpretation is to be adopted which is free fromevil or injustice.
Lex injusta non est lex.
  An unjust law is not a law.
13. Fiat justitia, ruat coelum .
 Let right be done, though the heavens fall.
Nemo est supra legis.
 Nobody is above the law.
Nulla potential supra legis esse debet.
 No power must be above the law.
14. Jurae naturae aequum est neminem cum alterius detrimento et injuria fieri locupletiorem.
 It is certainly not agreeable to natural justice that astranger should reap the pecuniary produce of another 
man’s work.
 
15. Surplusagium non nocet.
 Surplusage does not vitiate a statute.
Utile per inutile non vitiatur.
 The useful is not vitiated by the non-useful.
16. Falsa demostratio non nocet, cum de corpore constat.
 False description does not preclude construction nor vitiate the meaning of the statute.
Nil facit error nominis cum de corpora vel persona constat.
 Error in name does not make an instrument inoperativewhen the description is sufficiently clear.
Certum est quod certum reddi potest.
 That is sufficiently certain which can be made certain.
17. Ibi quid generaliter conceditur, inest haec exception, si non aliquid sit contras jus basque.
 Where anything is granted generally, exemption fromrigid application of law is implied; that nothing shall becontrary to law and right.
18. Summum jus, summa injuria.
 The rigor of the law would be the highest injustice.
Jus summum saepe, summa est militia.
 Extreme law is often extreme wrong.
19. Nemo tenetur ad impossibilia.
 The law obliges no one to perform an impossibility.
Impossibilum nulla obigatio est.
 There is no obligation to do an impossible thing.
Lex non cogit ad impossibilia.
 The law does not require an impossibility.
Lex non intendit aliquid impossible.
 The law does not intend the impossible.C. IMPLICATIONS
20. Ex necessitate legis.
 By the necessary implication of law.
In eo quod plus sit, simper inest et minus.
 The greater includes the lesser.
Cui jurisdiction data est, ea quoque concessa esse videntur sine quibus jurisdiction explicari non potuit.
 When jurisdiction is given, all powers and meansessential to its exercise are also given.
21. Ubi jus, ibi remedium.
 Where there is a right, there is a remedy for violationthereof.
Ubi jus incertum, ibi jus nullum.
 Where the law is uncertain, there is no right.
22. Ex dolo malo non oritur action.
  An action does not arise from fraud.
Nullius commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria.
 No one may derive advantage from his own unlawful act.
In pari delicto potior est condition defendentis.
 Where the parties are equally at fault, the position of thedefending party is the better one.
23. Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum.
 What cannot, by law, be done directly cannot be doneindirectly.CHAPTER V
 –
INTERPRETATION OF WORDS ANDPHRASES A. IN GENERAL24. Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda.General words should be understood in their generalsense.Generis dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general statement is understood in its general sense.25. Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectammateriam. A word is to be understood in the context in which it isused.Verba mere aequivoca, si per communem usumloquendi in intellectu certosumuntur, talis intellectus preferendus est.Equivocal words or those with double meaning are to beunderstoodaccording to their common and ordinary sense.Verba artis ex arte.Words of art should be explained from their usage in theart to which they belong.Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei velpersonam.General words should be confined according to thesubject-matter or persons to which they relate.26. Ubi lex non distinguit necnon distinguere debemus.Where the law does not distinguish, the courts shouldnot distinguish.27. Dissimilum dissimilis est ratio.Of things dissimilar, the rule is dissimilar.
 
B. ASSOCIATED WORDS
28. Noscitur a sociis.
  A thing is known by its associates.
29. Ejesdem generis.
 Of the same kind or species.
30. Expressio unius est exclusion alterius.
 The express mention of one person, thing or consequence implies the exclusion of all others.
Expressum facit cessare tacitum.
 What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied.
31. Argumentum a contrario.
 Negative-Opposite Doctrine: what is expressed puts anend to that which is implied.
32. Cassus omissus pro omisso habendus est.
  A person, object or thing omitted from an enumerationmust be held to have been omitted intentionally.
33. Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sentential.
  A qualifying word or phrase should be understood asreferring to the nearest antecedent.
34. Reddendo singular singulis.
 Referring each to each, or referring each phrase or expression to its appropriate object, or let each be put inits proper place.C. PROVISOS, EXCEPTIONS AND SAVING CLAUSES
35. Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis.
  A thing not being expected must be regarded as comingwithin the purview of the general rule.CHAPTER VI
 –
STATUTE CONSIDERED AS A WHOLEIN RELATION TO OTHER STATUTES A. STATUTE CONSTRUED AS A WHOLE
36. Optima statute interpretatrix est ipsum statutum.
 The best interpreter of the statute is the statute itself.
Ex tota materia emergat resolution.
 The exposition of a statute should be made from all itsparts put together.
Injustum est, nisi tota lege inspecta, de una aliqua ejus particula proposita indicare vel respondere.
 It is unjust to decide or to respond as to any particular part of a law without examining the whole of the law.
Nemo enim aliquam partem recte intelligere possit antequam totum interum atque interim perlegit.
 The sense and meaning of the law is collected byviewing all the parts together as one whole and not of one part only by itself.
Ex antecendentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretation.
  A passage will be best interpreted by reference to thatwhich precedes and follows it.
Verba posterima propter certitudinem addita ad priora quae certitudine indigent sunt referenda.
 Reference should be made to a subsequent section inorder to explain a previous clause of which the meaningis doubtful.
37. Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat.
  A law should be interpreted with a view of upholdingrather than destroying it.B. STATUTE CONSTRUED IN RELATION TOCONSTITUTION AND OTHER STATUTES
38. Pari materia.
 Of the same matter.
Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus.
 Every statute myst be so construed and harmonized withother statutes as to form a uniform system of law.
39. Distingue tempora et concordabis jura.
 Distinguish times and you will harmonize law.- Tempora mutantur et leges mutantur in illis.- Times have changed and laws have changed withthem.
Mutatis mutandis.
 With the necessary changes.CHAPTER VII
 –
STRICT OR LIBERALCONSTRUCTION A. IN GENERAL
40. Salus populi est suprema lex.
 The voice of the people is the supreme law.
Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur.
 Statutes enacted for the publc good are to be construedliberally.
Privatum incommodum publico bono pensatur.
 The private interests of the individual must give way tothe accommodation of the public.B. STATUTES STRICTLY CONSTRUED
41. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea.
 The act does not make a person guilty unless the mindis also guilty.
Actus me invito facturs non est meus actus.
  An act done by me against my will is not my act.
42. Privilegia recipiunt largam interpretationem voluntate consonem concedentis.
 Privileges are to be interpreted in accordance with thewill of him who grants them.
Renunciatio non praesumitur.
 Renunciation cannot be presumed.
43. Strictissimi juris.
 Follow the law strictly.
44. Nullum tempus occurit regi.
 There can be no legal right as against the authority thatmakes the law on which the right depends.CHAPTER VIII
 –
MANDATORY AND DIRECTIONALSTATUTES A. MANDATORY STATUTES
45. Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt.
 The law aids the vigilant, not those who slumber on their rights.
Potior est in tempore, potior est in jure.
 He who is first in time is preferred in right.

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