STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION LATIN MAXIMSCHAPTER II
CONSTRUCTION ANDINTERPRETATIONB. POWER TO CONSTRUE
1. Legis interpretation legis vim obtinet.
Judicial construction and interpretation of a statuteacquires the force of law.CHAPTER III
AIDS TO CONSTRUCTIONC. CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION
2. Contemporanea exposition est optima et fortissimo in lege.
Contemporary construction is strongest in law.
Optima est legum interpres consuetudo.
Custom is the best interpreter of a statute.
Regula pro lege, si deficit lex.
In default of the law, the maxim rules.
3. Optimus interpres rerum usus.
The best interpreter of the law is usage.
Communis error facit jus.
Common error sometimes passes as current law.
Quod ab initio non valet in tractu temporis non convalescit.
That which was originally void, does not by lapse of timebecome valid.
4. Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur.
Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate.
5. Stare decisis et non quieta movere.
Follow past precedents and do not disturb what hasbeen settled.
Interest republicae ut sit finis litium.
The interest of the state demands that there be an endto litigation.CHAPTER IV
ADHERENCE TO, OR DEPARTUREFROM, LANGUAGE OF STATUTE LITERALINTERPRETATION
6. Index animi sermo est.
Speech is the index of intention.
Animus hominis est anima scripti.
The intention of the party is the soul.
Verba legis non est recedendum.
From the words of the statute there should be nodeparture.
Maledicta et exposition quae corrumpit textum.
It is bad construction which corrupts the text.
Littera scripta manet.
The written word endures.
Clausula rebus sic stantibus.
Things thus standing.
7. Absoluta sentential expositore non indigent.
When the language of the law is clear, no explanation isrequired.
Dura lex sed lex.
The law may be harsh but it is the law.
Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed ita lex scripta est.
It is exceedingly hard, but so the law is written.B. DEPARTURE FROM LITERAL INTERPRETATION
8. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legis.
Equity never acts in contravention of the law.
Aequum et bonum est lex legume.
What is good and equal is the law of laws.
Jus ars boni et aequi.
Law is the art of equity.
9. Ratio legis est anima legis.
The reason of the law is the soul of the law.
Littera necat spiritus vivificate.
The letter kills but the spirit gives life.
Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservice.
Words ought to be more subservient to the intent, andnot the intent to the words.
Benignus leges interpretandae sunt, quod voluntas eraum conservetur.
Laws are to be construed liberally, so that their spirit andreason be preserved.
Qui haret in littera haret in cortice.
He who considers merely the letter of an instrumentgoes but skin deep into its meaning.
Quando verba statute sunt speciali, ratio autem generalia, statum generaliter est intelligendum.
When the words used in a statute are special, but thepurpose of the law is general, it should be read as thegeneral expression.
10. Cessante rationi legis, cessat et ipsa lex.
When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself ceases.
11. Interpretatio talis in ambiguis simper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum.
Where there is ambiguity, the interpretation of such thatwill avoid inconveniences and absurdity is to be adopted.
Legis construction non facit injuriam.
The construction of the law will not be such as to workinjury or injustice.
Argumentum ab inconvenient plurimum valet in lege.
An argument drawn from inconvenience is forcible inlaw.
Verba nihil operari melius est quam absurde.
It is better that words should have no operation at allthan that they should operate absurdly.
Lex simper intendit quod convenit rationi.
The law always intends that which is in accordance withreason.
Ubi eadem ratio ibi idem jus.
Like reason doth make like law.
Argumentum a simili valet in lege.
An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy,prevails in law.