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Energy From Solid and Liquid Wastes - X

Energy From Solid and Liquid Wastes - X

Ratings: (0)|Views: 186 |Likes:
Published by Mukul Narayan
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Mukul Narayan on Jul 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/28/2011

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Lecture No: 27Process parameters27.1. Temperature:
The temperature controls the microbial activity and, this, rate of thecomposting process. The degradation rate usually increases strongly with temperature upto about 70-80
o
C as shown in
Fig. 27.1
. Above this temperature most microorganismswill either be killed or form spores, which is a resting stage. This prevents further increases in degradation rte and temperature of the compost. It is often important tomaintain a high temperature as long as possible to ensure rapid degradation and effectiveuse of the compost facility. High temperatures are also needed in many cases to achieve proper hygienization of the compost material. Hygienization is often required if thecompost is to be used as a soil amendment on soils used on agricultural production.Hygienization reduces the concentration of pathogenic organisms and weed seeds in thecompost. Adjusting the oxygen concentration (by mixing or blowing air through thecompost) and the water content (by irrigation) in the compost controls the microbialactivity and, thus, the temperature. If the oxygen concentration or water content is toolow the rate of degradation decreases and the temperature will fall even if there is plentyof degradable organic material available. Watering the compost if too dry or increasingthe oxygen concentration if too low by turning or aeration will usually cause themicrobial activity and the temperature to go back up. In cold climate regions it can benecessary to provide some type of insulation to maintain proper temperature. This may bedone by covering the composting material by a layer of finished compost, or by processing the material in an enclosed space such as a building or directly in a reactor.
 
Fig 27.1. Relationship between temperature and oxygen consumption rate incompost
 
27.2. Water content
: The water content controls both the microbial activity and theoxygen transportation in the compost material. At low water contents oxygen will betransported faster and easier because a greater amount of the pores are filled with air. Thismakes it easier to ensure a high oxygen concentration in the compost. Low water contents, however, are inhibitory to microorganisms whose activity will cease atgravimetric water contents below 8-12 %. The optimal water content also depends on thestructure of material being composted. Materials that are structurally strong can havehigher permissible gravimetric water contents (70-80% for wood chips, straw, hay, etc.) because the structure of the materials ensure that there will be a sufficient amount of air-filled pores. For less structured materials such as wastewater treatment sludge higher water contents will result in low air filled porosity, poor air penetration and difficulty inhandling the materials, as they will become liquefied. Generally the optimal gravimetricwater content for most mixtures of organic wastes containing food residues is between 35and 60% although practice have shown that water contents of 75% for sludge-straw-garden waste compost air-filled porosity can be improved by adding a bulking agent suchas straw, wood chips or paper, or by increasing the airflow through the compost tofacilitate the evaporation of water. In wet climate it may be necessary to provide a roof over the compost facility to prevent high water contents from developing, watering thecompost can cure low water contents. The water content can be adjusted by mixing thewaste with a material of different water content. Assuming that the waste has a water content of 
a
(g/g), the mixing material has a water content of 
b
(g/g) and we want amixture of water content of 
c
(g/g) we can calculate the amount of mixing materialrequired per kg of waste as:kg of mixing materiala cM
mix,water 
x =kg of waste c dwhere M
mix,water 
is the amount of mixing material required per kg of waste to adjust thewater content. Note that c must be between
a
and
b
otherwise it is not possible to adjustthe water content.

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