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Hazardous Waste Management

Hazardous Waste Management

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Published by: mateenmohamed on Sep 08, 2009
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11/19/2010

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HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
1
What are Hazardous Wastes ?
A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial orpotential threats to public health or the environmentand generally exhibits one or more of thesecharacteristics:
cancerogenic
ignitable (i.e.,flammable)
explosiveHazardous waste ‘is a waste (usually a solid waste)that has the potential to:
cause, or significantly contribute to an increasein mortality (death) or an increase in seriousirreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness;or
pose a substantial present or potential hazard ohuman health or the environment whenimproperly treated, stored, transported, ordisposed of, or otherwise managed.Characteristic Hazardous Wastes are defined aswastes that exhibit the following characteristics:ignitability, corrosively, reactivity, or toxicity.
 
Ignitability
Ignitable wastes can create fires under certainconditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have aflash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). Examplesinclude waste oils and used solvents.
Corrosivity
Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than orequal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) that arecapable of corroding metal containers, such asstorage tanks, drums, and barrels. Battery acid is anexample.
Reactivity
Reactive wastes are unstable under "normal"conditions. They can cause explosions, toxic fumes,gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixedwith water. Examples include lithium-sulfur batteriesand explosives
Toxicity
 Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested,absorbed or inhaled (e.g., containing mercury, lead,etc.). When toxic wastes are land disposed,contaminated liquid may leach from the waste andpollute ground water.
 
In the modern society,large quantities of unwantedand harmful wastes are generated by chemicalmanufacturing companies,petroleum refineries,paper mills ,smelters and other industries. Evencommercial establishments such as drycleaners,machine shops and automobile repair shopsgenerate some kinds of harmful wastes. These hazardous wastes can result in seriousillness,injury or even death of the individuals,andpopulation exposed to them-they can also pose animmediate and significant threat to environmentalquality when improperly stored,transported ordisposed off.
2
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
Several options are available for hazardous wastemanagement.In order of preference this can besummarized as follows:1.Eliminate or reduce waste quantitites: at theirsource by modifying industrial processes and othertechniques.2.Reclaim and recycle the wastes : using it as aresource for some other industrial or manufacturingprocesses.3.Stabilize the wastes by using appropriate chemicaland physical processes.4.Incinerate the waste at a temperature high enoughto destroy it.5.Apply modern land disposal methods,preferablyafter providing appropriate treatment.

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