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Quantity of Water (Water Supply Engineering)

Quantity of Water (Water Supply Engineering)

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal
Notes on 'Quantity of Water'
Level - B.E.
Course - Civil Engineering
Notes on 'Quantity of Water'
Level - B.E.
Course - Civil Engineering

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Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Jan 04, 2014
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01/09/2015

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CHAPTER
 III QUANTITY OF WATER
3.1 Per Capita Demand of Water It is the average quantity of water required by a person in a day. The unit is
lpcd
(litres per capita demand of water).
        
 The unit of total water demand is litres/day. 3.2 Design and Base Periods i.
 
Survey Year:
It is the year in which survey is carried out. ii.
 
Base Period:
It is the period between survey year and base year during which the  works of survey, design and construction are completed. Base Period is generally taken as 2 to 3 years. iii.
 
Base Year:
It is the year in which implementation is done. Base Year = Survey Year + Base Period iv.
 
Design Period:
 Any water supply project is planned to meet the present requirements of community as well as the requirement for a reasonable future period (up to service  year). This period between Base Year and Service or Design Year is taken as Design Period. It is generally 15 to 20 years. This period is taken 15 years in communities where the population growth rate is higher and 20 years in communities where population growth rate is comparatively lower.  v.
 
Design/Service Year:
It is the year up to which water demand is to be fulfilled. Service Year = Survey Year + Base Period + Design Period = Base Year + Design Period 3.2.2 Selection Basis Design Period is selected based on the following:
 
Useful lives of the component considering obsolescence, wear, tear, etc.
 
Expandability aspect.
 
 
 Anticipated rate of growth of population including industrial, commercial developments and migration-immigration.
 
 Available resources.
 
Performance of the system during initial period. Suppose, r = growth rate of population
If r ≥ 2, design period is 15 years and if r < 2, design period is 20 years.
 3.3 Types of Water Demand 3.3.1 Domestic Demand 
 
 Water demand required for domestic purposes.
 
Required for both urban and rural areas.
 
Depends upon the habit, social status, climatic conditions, living standard, etc.
S.N. Types of Consumption Water Demand (lpcd)
1 Private Connection and Fully Plumbed System 112 2 Private Connection and Partly Plumbed System 65 3 Public Stand Post 45 (can come down to 25) 3.3.2 Livestock Demand
 
Quantity of water required for domestic animals and livestock including birds.
 
Generally considered in rural water supply.
 
Livestock demand should not be greater than 20% of domestic demand.
S.N. Types of Consumption  Water Demand (lpcd)
1 Big animals >> cow, buffalo 45 2 Medium animals >> goat, dog 20 3 Small animals >> birds 0.2 3.3.3 Commercial/Institutional Demand
 
Quantity of water required for commercial institutions like schools, colleges, hospitals, offices, etc.
 
For commercial and institutional purpose, 45 lpcd can be taken.
 
Institutions Demand Urban Area Rural Area
a. Hospitals/Health Posts/Clinics
i. With Bed 500 l/bed/day 325-500 l/bed/day ii. Without Bed 2,500 l/day 1600-2500 l/hospital/day
b. Schools
i. Boarders 65 lpcd 42-60 lpcd ii. Day Scholars 10 lpcd 6.5-10 lpcd
c. Hotels
i. With Bed 200 l/bed/day 200 l/bed/day ii. Without Bed 500-1000 l/day 500-1000 l/day
d. Restaurants/Tea Stall
500-1000 l/day 200-500 l/day
e. Offices
i. Unclassified 500-1000 l/day 325-1000 l/office/day ii. Resident 65 lpcd 65 lpcd iii. Non resident 10 lpcd 10 lpcd 3.3.4 Public/Municipal Demand
 
Considered only in urban areas for municipal purposes e.g. cleaning roads, for public parks.
 
 We adopt criteria by Indian Government. i.
 
Street Washing = 1 to 1.5 l/m
2
 of surface area of road/day ii.
 
Public Parks = 1.4 l/m
2
/day iii.
 
Sewer Cleaning = 4.5 l/person/day 3.3.5 Industrial Demand
 
Normally considered in urban areas.
 
Quantity of Water required for various industries and factories.
 
Generally taken as 20 to 25% of total demand. 3.3.6 Fire Fighting Demand
 Authority Formula (P in '000, Q in l/min)
1. National Board of Fire Underwriters Formula
Q = 4637 √P (1
-
o.01 √P)
 2. Freeman's Formula Q = 1136 (P/5 + 10) 3. Kuichling's Formula
Q = 3182 √P
 4. Buston's Formula
Q = 5663 √P
 5. Indian Water Supply Manual Formula
Q = 100 √P, Q in cubic meter/day 
 3.3.7 Loss and Wastage
 
15% of total demand is considered to be loss and wastage.

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