Workforce getting more heterogeneous in gender, race, culture,language, etc.
Differentiated customer needs – fulfilling them is a source ofcompetitive advantage.
Increasing access of workplace to diverse populations.
Increased pace of change in technology and markets.
Diversity in organisations is a source of both innovation andconflict/communication problem. Managers in such organisations needto cope with different styles of interaction, presentation, dress, physicalappearance, etc.
Fewer levels of management.
Empowerment of workers for making decisions.
Fewer differences in responsibility (not in pay) across levels.
Need for quick decision making.
Development in information technology.
Globalisation which forces intensified competition and increases theneed to cut costs.
Direct communication across unit and firm boundaries, ignoring chainof command.
Cross-unit team structures.
Outsourcing and downsizing.
Strategic alliances with competitors, customers and collaborators all atthe same time.
Close coordination among firms (e.g., JIT systems) and informationsharing (open computer systems).
Across the board contact with customers, not just official boundaryspanners.