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nano coating for cutting tool

nano coating for cutting tool

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01/07/2013

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JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
40
(2005) 1– 26
ReviewNano and macro-structured componentfabrication by electron beam-physicalvapor deposition (EB-PVD)
J. SINGH, D. E. WOLFE
Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 115 MRI Building, PA 16804, USAE-mail: jxs46@psu.edu 
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the versatility of electron beam-physical vapordeposition (EB-PVD) technology in engineering new materials with controlledmicrostructure and microchemistry in the form of coatings. EB-PVD technology is beingexplored in forming net-shaped components for many applications including space,turbine, optical, biomedical and auto industry. Coatings are often applied on componentsto extend their performance and life under severe environmental conditions includingthermal, corrosion, wear, and oxidation. In addition, coatings have been used in designingand developing sensors. Performance and properties of the coatings depend upon itscomposition, microstructure and deposition condition. This paper presents recent results ofvarious materials including ceramic, metallic, and functionally graded coatings producedby EB-PVD. Simultaneous co-evaporation of multiple ingots of different compositions in thehigh energy EB-PVD chamber has brought considerable interest in the architecture offunctional graded coatings, nano-laminated coatings and designing of new structuralmaterials that could not be produced economically by conventional methods. In addition,high evaporation and condensate rate allowed fabricating precision net-shapedcomponents with nanograined microstructure for various applications. This paper will alsopresent the results of various metallic and ceramic coatings including chromium, titaniumcarbide (TiC), hafnium carbide (HfC), tantalum carbide (TaC), hafnium nitride (HfN),titanium-boron-carbonitride (TiBCN), and partially yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), andHfO
2
-based TBC coatings deposited by EB-PVD for various applications.
C
2005 
Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
1. Introduction
Coatingsplayanimportantrolerangingfromunder-seato space applications including communications, sen-sors, satellites, optics, auto, and aerospace industries[1–6]. High temperature components of gas-turbineengines for aircraft such as airfoils and vanes arecoated with metallic and ceramic coatings to enhanceperformance and reliability [7–10]. Thus, there is acontinuous effort to engineer surface properties of the material enhancing the life of components undersevereenvironmentalconditionswherecorrosion,high-temperature oxidation, and wear are concerns. Simi-larly, multilayered ceramic and metallic films are ex-tensively used in the fabrication of microelectronic andcommunication components [11, 12]. It is important tounderstand the inter-relationship of applications, coat-ings and processes. Applications dictate the selectionofcoatingmaterials,andthedesiredthermal,chemical,and mechanical properties often determine the deposi-tion method and processing parameters [13].Coating process can be broadly classified into threegroups:vaporphase,whichincludesphysicalvaporde-position (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD);liquid phase, which-includes painting, dipping andelectroplating; and solid phase which includes plasmaspray processes and laser cladding [14–20]. Each pro-cess can again be sub-classified based on the source of energy used for the deposition of coatings as shown inTable I, and briefly discussed in the Appendix. Each of these processes has its advantages and disadvantages.ComparisonofCVD,PVDandplasmasprayprocessesisgiveninTableII[21–23].Chemicalandphysicalcon-ditions during the deposition reaction can strongly af-fect the composition, residual stresses, and microstruc-ture (i.e., amorphous, polycrystalline, epitaxial, andtextured) of the coating. The desired coating thick-ness and material properties (including microstructure,physical, and mechanical properties) are dictated by itsapplication, which will determine the coating deposi-tion process to be used. The objective of this research
0022–2461
C
2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
1
 
TABLE I Coating deposition techniques [14–20]Powder Spray deposition processes
Thermal spray, Plasma spray
High-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF)
Detonation gun (D-gun)Chemical vapor deposition processes (CVD)
Low pressure CVD
Plasma enhanced CVD
Photochemical and laser-CVDPhysical vapor deposition processes (PVD)
Thermal evaporation
Electron beam-PVD
Sputtering
Balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering
Direct current diode sputtering
Radio frequency sputtering
Triode-assisted PVD
Cathodic arc
Ion plating
paper is to briefly review vapor phase coating growthmechanism followed by the most recent research work conducted in developing coatings/components for var-ious applications by the electron beam-physical vapordeposition (EB-PVD) process. In addition, the usageof EB-PVD technology will demonstrate in produc-ing near net-shaped components with controlled mi-crostructure and chemistry.
2. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition(EB-PVD) process
EB-PVD is a simple process in which a focused high-energy electron beam is directed to melt the evaporantmaterial(s) in a vacuum chamber (Fig. 1). The evap-orating material condenses on the surface of the sub-strates or components resulting in the formation of de-posit, i.e., coating. During deposition, external heating
TABLE II Comparison between CVD, PVD, EB-PVD and plasma spray processes [21–23]Coating Substrate Deposition Surface Type of Typical Coatingprocess temperature (
C) rate roughness bonding microstructure material Environment FlexibilityPlasma spray RT to 800 (flexible)
>
100
µ
m/min Very rough Mechanical Deformed-lamella Metal, ceramic Noise FlexibleCVD
>
800–1200 (must)
<
0.08
µ
m/min Smooth Diffusional Columnar, Metal, ceramic Chemical Limited(
<
5
µ
m/h) Equiaxed gas disposalPVD-
<
600 (flexible)
<
0.08
µ
m/min Smooth Diffusional Columnar Metal, ceramic Clean Limitedsputtering (
<
5
µ
m/h)EB-PVD RT to 1200 .01 to 100
µ
m/min Smooth Diffusional Columnar, Metal, ceramic Clean Flexible(exible) nanograinedequiaxed
Figure 1
Schematic diagram showing: (a) straight and (b) electromagnetic deflected electron beam guns [24].
is often applied to the substrate for enhancing metal-lurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate.EB-PVD is primarily a line-of-sight process, therefore,uniform coating of complex parts (such as turbine air-foils) is accomplished by continuous rotation in the va-por cloud during the deposition process.TherearefourmaincomponentsintheEB-PVDunit,namely, EB-gun assembly, water cooled copper cru-cible which contains the material to be evaporated, thesubstrate (part to be coated), and the vacuum cham-ber unit with enhanced flexibility for a variety of coat-ing applications. The EB gun can be self-acceleratedstraight or electromagnetic deflected through 180 or270
as shown in Fig. 1. Similarly, the evaporant mate-rial is placed in a water-cooled copper crucible, whichcould be either pocket type for small quantity evapo-ration application (Fig. 1) or continuous ingot feedingthrough a copper-cooled crucible (Fig. 2 as marked A,B and C) for larger quantity evaporation. Flexibilityin the application of EB-PVD unit can be enhancedby using many EB guns and continuous multiple in-gots feeding system (Fig. 2) as discussed in the nextsection.The industrial research pilot plant scale EB-PVD inthe author’s laboratory at Penn State University has sixelectron beam guns, four of which can be used to evap-orate the coating material and two to preheat the sub-strate (either directly or indirectly) to facilitate coatingadhesion,properchemistryandmicrostructuralcontrol(Fig. 2). Each gun has an average power 45 kW capac-ity (with peak power 60 kW). The chamber accommo-dates up to three ingots ranging in size from 25 to 68mm in diameter and up to 450 mm length. The over-all volume of the coating chamber is approximately 1cubic meter. The maximum diameter of the substratewith vertical rotation is about 400 mm and can be ro-tated at a speed of 5.5 to 110 rpm with a maximum
2
 
Figure 2
Photograph of the EB-PVD chamber showing six EB guns (1–6), three continuous ingot (A–C) feeding system, “A-shaped” graphite heater,deposition shutter, and rotating sample between the graphite heater and the deposition shutter.
load capacity of 100 Kg. The unit also has a horizontalsample holder with a three-axis part manipulator: tworotary axes of 0–14 rpm and a 0–4000 mm/min transla-tion axis. It can accommodate samples weighing up to20 kg.The EB-PVD process offers extensive possibilitiesfor controlling variations in the structure and compo-sition of the processed materials. For example, coat-ing compositions can be varied continuously, in theso-calledFunctionalGradedCoatings(FGC).Coatingscan be graded from metallic to metallic, ceramic to ce-ramic, metallic to ceramic, or ceramic to metallic de-pending on what is desired [25–27]. Also, multilayercoatings comprising of alternating layers of differentcompositionsincludingmetals,ceramics,andpolymerscan be made on a variety of substrates, depending onthe desired application [28, 29]. The EB-PVD processoffers many desirable characteristics such as relativelyhighdepositionrates(upto150
µ
m/minwithanevapo-rationrateof 
10–15Kg/h),densecoatings,controlledcomposition, tailored microstructure, low contamina-tion, and flexible deposition parameters [27, 28]. Coat-ings produced by the EB-PVD process usually havea good surface finish and a uniform microstructure.The microstructure and composition of the coating canbe easily altered by manipulating the process param-eters and ingot compositions. Thus, multilayered ce-ramic/metallic coatings can be readily formed and var-ious metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides,and nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temper-atures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such asmolybdenum,tungsten,rheniumandcarbonarereadilyevaporated by this process.Two ion sources (8 cm Kaufman and Endhall) areperiodicallyusedintheEB-PVDunittomodifythemi-crostructure, properties and chemistry of the depositedcoating. Depending on the desired coating properties,the high-energy gridded 8 cm Kaufman or low-energy(high current) Endhall ion beam source is used. Theattachment of the ion beam source to the EB-PVD unitofferstwoadditionalfeatures.Thesubstratesurfacecanbe ion beam sputter cleaned/etched prior to depositionto promote adhesion between the coating and the sub-strate or during deposition to produce the desired mi-crostructure and chemistry as discussed briefly below[30–43].
2.1. Ion beam etching and pre-cleaning
The function of ion beam etching or pre-cleaning thesubstrate is the same. In ion beam etching, an ionizedbeam of gas is directed towards the substrate’s surface,prior to deposition, to remove contamination material.Thisremovalofsurfacematerialistheresultofphysicalsputtering of the material from the surface due to themomentum transfer between the energetic beam atomsandthesubstratesurfaceatoms.Generally,forphysicalsputtering, an inert gas, such as argon, is used. Bom-bardment of the substrate surface prior to deposition(i.e., sputter cleaning) promotes better adhesion. Thetwo major effects occurring during this pre-cleaningstep are: (1) removal of adsorbed hydrocarbons andwater molecules and (2) increasing the density of nu-cleation sites for condensation [35, 38]. Not remov-ing these materials /molecules prior to deposition re-sults in poor adhesion as they serve as weak links forbonding. Thus,
in-situ
ion beam cleaning of samplesprior to coating deposition is often used during theseefforts.
2.2. Microstructure and propertyenhancement
In the last several years, ion beams have gained in-creased importance during the deposition process toenhance the properties of the depositing film. Ion bom-bardmentofthesubstrateoccurswhilethesourcemate-rial is evaporated by either resistance or EB. The stateof the internal stresses developed in the coating canbe changed from tensile to compressive stress by theforcible injection of high-energy atoms (i.e., ion im-plantation). Thus the ability to control the stress levelis an additional feature of the ion beam assisted de-position (IBAD) process [39–49]. Chemical vapor de-posited coatings generally form with tensile stressesdue to the thermal expansion mismatch with the sub-strate, which often limit the coating thickness beforespallation occurs. Ion bombardment during deposition
3

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