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The Bhagavadgita 2

The Bhagavadgita 2

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Published by: Satyendra Nath Dwivedi on Nov 24, 2009
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Book: Dr. S. RadhakrishnanSummary: Satyendra Nath DwivediPart 2Chapter 7: The Individual Self 
Reality is, in its own nature, infinite, absolute, untrammeled, inalienablypossessed of its own unity and bliss.
God’s purpose for the world or the cosmic destiny of man is the realization of theimmortal aspiration through his mortal frame, the achievement of the Divine lifein and through this physical frame and intellectual consciousness.
Any sense of satisfaction and security derived from submission to externalauthority is bought at the price of the integrity of the self. Submission is not thehuman way of overcoming loneliness and anxiety. By developing our inner spiritual nature, we gain a new kind of relatedness to the world and grow into thefreedom, where the integrity of the self is not comprised. We then become awareof ourselves as active creative individuals, living, not by the discipline of externalauthority but by the inward rule of free devotion to truth.The individual self is a portion of Lord, a real, not an imaginary form of theSupreme, a limited manifestation of God. Any form that the individual assumes isbound to be superceded, for he always tries to transcend himself and thisprocess will continue till becoming reaches its end in being.
When the ego is lost in a false identification with the not-self and its forms, it is bound; but whenthrough the development of proper understanding, it realizes the true nature of the self, then it is freed. This realization is possible through the proper functioning of ‘buddhi’ or ‘vijnana’.Man is the possessor of freedom. After describing the whole philosophy of life,the teacher asks Arjuna to do as he chooses. The whole teaching of Gitarequires man to choose the good and realize it by conscious effort 
.Man is a complex multi-dimensional being, including within him differentelements of matter, life, consciousness, intelligence and the Divine spark. He isfree when he acts from the highest level and uses the other elements for therealization of his purpose. But when he is on the level of objective nature, whenhe does not recognize his distinction from not-self, he becomes a slave to themechanism of nature. But even when he falsely identifies himself with theobjective universe, and feels that he is subject to the necessities of nature, he isnot without hope, for the One Spirit operates at all levels of being.
Neither nature nor society can invade our inner being without permission. Theworld is not fulfilling a prearranged plan in a mechanical way.
The aim of creationis the production of selves who freely carry out God’s will 
. We are asked tocontrol our impulses, shake-off our wanderings and confusions, rise above thecurrent of nature and regulate our conduct by reference to ‘buddhi’ or understanding, as otherwise, we will become victims of ‘lust which is the enemyof man on earth’.There are certain factors in our lives which are determined for us by forces over which we have no control. We do not choose how or when or where or in whatcondition of life we are born. On the theory of rebirth, even these are chosen byus. It is our past ‘karma’ that determines our ancestry, heredity and environment.Our life is a mixture of necessity and freedom, chance and choice. By exercisingour choice properly, we can control steadily all the elements and eliminatealtogether the determinism of nature.We must rise above our ego and grow into the Supreme Self of which the ego isan expression. When we make our individual being one with the Supreme, werise above nature with its three modes, become ‘trigunatita’, and freed from thebonds of the world.
Chapter 8: Yoga – Shastra
The Bhagavad-Gita gives us not only a metaphysics (‘
’) but also adiscipline (‘
’). Derived from the root, ‘
’, to bind together, yogameans binding one’s psychic powers, balancing and enhancing them. By yokingtogether and harnessing our energies by the most intense concentration of personality, we force the passage from the narrow ego to the transcendentpersonality.Perfection at human level is a task to be accomplished by conscious endeavour.The image of God operating in us produces a sense of insufficiency. Man has ahaunting sense of the vanity, the transience and the precariousness of all humanhappiness.For every individual there comes an hour sometime or other, for nature is not in ahurry, when everything he can do for himself fails, when he sinks into the gulf of utter blackness, an hour when he would give all he has for one gleam of light, for one sign of the Divine. When he is assailed by doubt, denial, hatred of life andblack despair, he can escape from them only if God lays his hand on him.The invisible impulse to seek God produces the agony that inspires heroicidealism and human fulfillment. The image of God in us expresses itself in theinfinite capacity for self-transcendence.
Chapter 9: ‘ 
’ or Saving Wisdom
Wisdom is not to be confused with theoretical learning or correct beliefs, for ignorance is not intellectual error. It is spiritual blindness. To remove it, we mustcleanse the soul of its defilement and kindle the spiritual vision. The fire of passion and the tumult of desire must be suppressed. The mind, inconstant andunstable, must be steadied so as to reflect the wisdom from above. We mustcontrol the senses, possess the faith which no intellectual doubts disturb andtrain the understanding (‘
’).Wisdom is direct experience which occurs as soon as obstacles to its realizationare removed. The effort of the seeker is directed to the elimination of thehindrances, to the removal of the obscuring tendencies of ‘avidya’. According toAdvaita Vedanta, this wisdom is always present. It is not a thing to be acquired; ithas only to be revealed.
’ and ‘
’, wisdom and ignorance are opposed as light and darkness.When wisdom dawns, ignorance dies and the evil is cut off at the root. Theliberated soul overcomes the world. There is nothing to conquer or to create.
Chapter 10: The Way to Knowledge: ‘ 
We can reach the goal of perfection, attain the saving truth in three differentways: by a knowledge of the Reality (‘
’), or adoration and love (‘
’) of the Supreme Person or by subjection of the will to the Divine purpose (‘
’).These are distinguished on account of the distribution of emphasis on thetheoretical, emotional and practical aspects. Men are of different types, reflective,emotional or active but they are not exclusively so. At the end, knowledge, loveand action mingle together. God Himself is ‘
’ and ‘
’, reality,truth, and bliss.From the earliest times, yoga has been employed to describe practices andexperiences of a special kind which have been later adapted to the teachings of the different methods,
’ and ‘
’. Each of them uses thepractices of ‘
’ or the way of meditation. According to Patanjali[Yoga-Sutras 1.2]:
“Yoga is the suppression of the activities of mind.” 
Unless the individual has complete self-awareness, he cannot become master of his life. Besides body, life and mind require to be integrated. As a self-consciousbeing, man is actually aware of the deeper discords in him. He generally resortsto working compromises and leads a precarious life. But until a perfect harmony,an organic balance, of his many sided possibilities is achieved, he is not fullymaster of himself.

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