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Psychology Notes

Psychology Notes

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Published by Andrew Hoff
General psychology notes test 1
General psychology notes test 1

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Published by: Andrew Hoff on Nov 25, 2009
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10/01/2014

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Andrew Hoff 
s Psychology Notes 1
Psychology
 – 
the study of the mind (Greek)Psychology definition
 – 
the scientific study of the behavior and mental processesBehavior- animate activityAnimate human behaviorGoal
 – 
to describe, explain, predict and control (modify) behaviorTools
 – 
scientific methodWhy does it exist?Small Reason: Curiosity about how and why people behave the way they do.Large reason : humankind is plagued with problems of behavior ( intrapersonal,interpersonal, and intergroup). Humans engage in behavior harmful to themselves andothers.What is a problem?
It’s only a problem if someone considers it to be a problem. It’s not a problem if no one
considers it to be a problem.GenocidesMain problem in the world is overpopulation.
Problem Solving Cycle
2. ProblemDefinition (findreal problem)(diagnostic)3. CausalDetermination(real cause of problem)4. SelectAlternativeInterventions(changes tomake)5. Implementintervention6. EvaluateIntervention1. ProblemPerception
 
Andrew Hoff 
s Psychology Notes 2
Overpopulation is a major behavior problem.Critical Thinking about Behavior(science) Truth by empiricism? (collecting data)Or
Truth by authority? (it’s okay but you need to verify empirically)
 What actually causes what?Attribution = cause2 causes for behavior1.
 
situational
 – 
not caused by person or character but a situation causes it2.
 
dispositional
 – 
caused by the person or character
Fundamental Attribution Error
 
 –If it’s good and you did it, you assign dispositionalattribute. If it’s bad an
d you did it, you assign situational attribute. It is just the oppositewhen describing someone else.If you apply wrong cause to human behavior, you will get the wrong solutions.The best index of future behavior is past behavior.
Causes of behavior
 Ultimate causes
 – 
evolutionary events and conditions that over generations, have slowlyshaped some of our behaviors and behavioral dispositions. Influence of evolution,survival of the fittest, natural selection of physical characteristics and psychological
 predispositions. Once you are born nature doesn’t change, nurture does.
 Proximate causes
 – 
variables in the immediate (or recent past) environment that affectbehavior. (parenting, drugs, education, health, associates, neighborhood, work,government, climate, models)Ultimate causes are advantageous to our genes. You inherit behavior propensities. We
don’t inherit instincts or complex behavior patterns.
Most behavior problems are caused by a mix of ultimate and proximate attributes. Naturevs. Nurture.
 
Andrew Hoff 
s Psychology Notes 34 major emotions
 1. mad2. sad3. glad4. scared
Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt (1880’s)
 Leipzig, GermanyStructure of consciousnessIntrospectionEdwaard Titchener, Cornell
Functionalism
William James
Late 1800’s
 Influenced by DarwinStudied functions of the mindNot its elementsIntrospectionDewey, HallNot what makes a computer but how a computer works
Gestalt Psychology
Wertheimer, Kohler, Kofka
Germany early 1900’s
 
“the whole is more than the sum of its parts”
 Studied perceptual phenomenaPerceptual demonstrations phiPhenomenomInsight (Sultan the Chimpanzee with Kohler on island)Gestalt in Germany means form
Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud, Vi
enna late 1800’s
Studied abnormal behaviorEmphasis on unconscious determinants of behavior and importance of childhood in
determining “personality”
 PsychotherapyJung, Rank, Horney, Anna Freud, Adler, BrillFather of personality theory and psychotherapy
Behaviorism

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