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Ma Mi

Ma Mi

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Published by: ZIM6662 on Dec 02, 2009
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Sigmund Freud
"Freud" redirects here. For other uses, seeFreud (disambiguation).
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt, 1914
Sigismund Schlomo Freud6 May 1856Freiberg,Moravia,Austria–Hungary, (now theCzech Republic)
23 September 1939 (aged 83)London,England,UK 
Known for
Notable awards
Religious stance
Sigmund Freud
German pronunciation:
Sigismund Schlomo Freud
(May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was anAustrian neurologistwho founded the psychoanalytic schoolof  psychology. Freud is best known for his theories of theunconscious mindand thedefense mechanismof repressionand for creating the clinical practice of   psychoanalysisfor treating psychopathologythrough dialogue between a patient and a  psychoanalyst. Freud is also renowned for his redefinition of sexual desireas the primarymotivational energy of human life, as well as his therapeutic techniques, including theuse of free association, his theory of transferencein the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation of dreamsas sources of insight into unconscious desires. He was also anearly neurological researcher intocerebral palsy.While many of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor or have been modified by Neo-Freudiansand at the close of the 20th century advances in the field of psychology beganto show flaws in many of his theories, Freud's methods and ideas remain important in thehistory of clinical psychodynamicapproaches. In academia, his ideas continue toinfluence thehumanitiesand somesocial sciences.
Early life
Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 toGalician Jewishparents in the Moraviantown of Příbor ,Austrian Empire, which is now part of the Czech Republic. His father  Jakob was 41, a wool merchant, and had two children by a previous marriage. His mother Amalié(née Nathansohn), the third wife of Jakob, was 21. He was the first of their eightchildren and owing to his precocious intellect, his parents favoured him over his siblingsfrom the early stages of his childhood. Despite their poverty, they sacrificed everything togive him a proper education. Due to theeconomic crisis of 1857, Freud's father lost his business, and the family moved toLeipzigbefore settling inVienna. In 1865, Sigmund entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. Freudwas an outstanding pupil and graduated theMaturain 1873 with honors. After planningto study law, Freud joined the medical faculty atUniversity of Viennato study under Darwinist Prof.Karl Claus. At that time,eel life historywas still unknown. In search for  their male sex organs, Freud spent four weeks at the Austrian zoological research stationinTrieste, dissecting hundreds of eels without finding more than his predecessors had. In1876, he published his first paper about "thetesticlesof eels" in the Mitteilungen der  österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, conceding that he could not solve thematter. Frustrated by the lack of success that would have gained him fame, Freud choseto change his course of study.
Medical school
In 1874, the concept of " psychodynamics" was proposed with the publication of Lectureson Physiology by German physiologistErnst Wilhelm von Brückewho, in coordinationwith physicistHermann von Helmholtz,one of the formulators of thefirst law of  thermodynamics(conservation of energy), supposed that all living organisms are energy- systems also governed by this principle. During this year, at theUniversity of Vienna,Brücke served as supervisor for first-year medical student Sigmund Freud who adoptedthis new "dynamic" physiology. In his Lectures on Physiology, Brücke set forth theradical view that the living organism is adynamic systemto which the laws of chemistry  andphysicsapply. This was the starting point for Freud's dynamic psychology of themind and its relation to theunconscious.The origins of Freud’s basic model, based on thefundamentals of chemistry and physics, according toJohn Bowlby, stems fromBrücke, Meynert,Breuer, Helmholtz, andHerbart. In 1879, Freud interrupted his studies to complete his one year of obligatory military service, and in 1881 he received his Dr. med.(M.D.) with the thesis Über das Rückenmark niederer Fischarten ("on thespinal cordof lower fishspecies").

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