Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 toGalician Jewishparents in the Moraviantown of Příbor ,Austrian Empire, which is now part of the Czech Republic. His father Jakob was 41, a wool merchant, and had two children by a previous marriage. His mother Amalié(née Nathansohn), the third wife of Jakob, was 21. He was the first of their eightchildren and owing to his precocious intellect, his parents favoured him over his siblingsfrom the early stages of his childhood. Despite their poverty, they sacrificed everything togive him a proper education. Due to theeconomic crisis of 1857, Freud's father lost his business, and the family moved toLeipzigbefore settling inVienna. In 1865, Sigmundentered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. Freudwas an outstanding pupil and graduated theMaturain 1873 with honors. After planningto study law, Freud joined the medical faculty atUniversity of Viennato study under Darwinist Prof.Karl Claus. At that time,eel life historywas still unknown. In search for their male sex organs, Freud spent four weeks at the Austrian zoological research stationinTrieste, dissecting hundreds of eels without finding more than his predecessors had. In1876, he published his first paper about "thetesticlesof eels" in the Mitteilungen der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, conceding that he could not solve thematter. Frustrated by the lack of success that would have gained him fame, Freud choseto change his course of study.
In 1874, the concept of " psychodynamics" was proposed with the publication of Lectureson Physiology by German physiologistErnst Wilhelm von Brückewho, in coordinationwith physicistHermann von Helmholtz,one of the formulators of thefirst law of thermodynamics(conservation of energy), supposed that all living organisms are energy-systems also governed by this principle. During this year, at theUniversity of Vienna,Brücke served as supervisor for first-year medical student Sigmund Freud who adoptedthis new "dynamic" physiology. In his Lectures on Physiology, Brücke set forth theradical view that the living organism is adynamic systemto which the laws of chemistryandphysicsapply. This was the starting point for Freud's dynamic psychology of themind and its relation to theunconscious.The origins of Freud’s basic model, based on thefundamentals of chemistry and physics, according toJohn Bowlby, stems fromBrücke,Meynert,Breuer,Helmholtz, andHerbart. In 1879, Freud interrupted his studies tocomplete his one year of obligatory military service, and in 1881 he received his Dr. med.(M.D.) with the thesis Über das Rückenmark niederer Fischarten ("on thespinal cordof lower fishspecies").