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Ashrae CKV Design Guide

Ashrae CKV Design Guide

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Published by: basha99 on Dec 04, 2009
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05/19/2013

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Design Guide 
Improving Commercial KitchenVentilation System Performance
This design guide provides informa-tion that will help achieveoptimumperformance and energy efficiency incommercial kitchen ventilation sys-tems.The information presented isapplicable to new construction and, inmanyinstances, retrofit construction.The audience for this guideline iskitchen designers, mechanical engi-neers, food service operators, prop-erty managers, and maintenancepeople. This guide is intended toaugment comprehensive design in-formation published in the KitchenVentilation Chapter in the ASHRAEHandbook on HVAC Applications.
Introduction
An effective commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) system requires bal-ance—air balancethat is. And as the designer, installeror operator of the kitchenventilation system, you maybe the first person called upon to perform your own“balancing act” when the exhaust hood doesn’t work. Unlike a cooking appliance,which can be isolated for troubleshooting,theexhaust hood is only one componentof the kitchen ventilation system.To further complicate things, theCKV system is asubsystemoftheoverall building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)system. Fortunately,there is no “magic” to the relationship between an exhaust hoodand its requirement for replacementor makeup air (MUA). The physics are simple:air thatexits the building (through exhausthoods and fans)must be replaced withoutside air that enters thebuilding (intentionallyor otherwise). The essence of 
air balance:
“air in” = “air out!”
Background
If the replacement air doesn’t come in, thatmeans it doesn’t go outtheex-haust hood and problems begin. Not only will the building pressure become too“negative,”the hood may not capture and contain (C&C) cooking effluents due toreduced exhaust flow. We haveall experienced the “can’t-open-the-door” syndromebecause the exhaust fan is sucking too hard on the inside of the restaurant.The me-chanical design may call for 8000 cubic feet per minute(cfm) of air to be exhaustedthrough the hood. But if only 6000 cfm of outdoor air is able to squeeze in throughclosed dampers on rooftopunits and undesirable pathways in thebuilding envelope,then only 6000 cfm is available to be exhausted through the hood. The exhaust fancreates more suction (negative pressure) in an unsuccessful attempt to pull more airthrough thehood.
Introduction1Background1Kitchen Ventilation Fundamentals2Influence of Makeup Air5MUA Recommendations6Influence of Other Factors9Energy Saving Considerations6Design Guide Summary12Case Study13
There is no piece of equipmentthat generates morecontroversy within thefood service equipment supply and design community than the exhaust hood in all itsstyles and makeup air combinations. The idea that by not installing a dedicated
Page 1California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.0
 
Improving Commercial Kitchen Ventilation System Performance 
makeupair supply, the operator is going tosave money (in both first cost and oper-ating cost) is short sighted. It may beokay if, by design, all of the makeup air canbeprovided through the rooftop HVAC units(this strategy has been adopted success-fully by several leading quick-service restaurant chains).However, in full-service andinstitutional kitchens with larger exhaust requirements, it may not be practical (orenergy efficient) to supply 100% of the replacement (makeup) airthrough the build-ing HVAC system.The solution is to specify an independentmakeupair supply. But, oncededicated MUA has been added to the system,thechallengebecomes introducingthis air into the kitchen without disrupting the ability of thehood to capture and/orwithout causing discomfort for the kitchen staff. Kitchens are not large and dump-ing 7000 cfm of MUA, for example, in front of a cook line does not go as smoothlyin practice as it does on the
air balance schedule!
Not onlycanmakeup air velocitiesimpact the ability of thehood to captureand contain cooking effluent, locally sup-plied makeupair that is toocold or toohot can create an uncomfortable workingenvironment.This design guide presents strategiesthat can minimize the impactthat the makeup air introduction will have on hood performance and energy con-sumption.
Fundamentals of Kitchen Ventilation
Hotair rises! An exhaust fan in the ceiling could easily remove the heatproduced by cooking equipment. But mix in smoke, volatileorganic compounds,greaseparticles and vapor from cooking, a means to capture and contain the efflu-ent is neededto avoid health and fire hazards. While an exhaust hood serves thatpurpose, the key question is always: whatis the appropriate exhaust rate? The an-swer always depends on the type (and use) of the cooking equipment under thehood, the style and geometry of the hood itself, and how the makeup air (condi-tioned or otherwise) is introduced into the kitchen.Cooking appliances are categorized as light-, medium-, heavy-, and extraheavy-duty, depending on the strengthof the thermalplume and the quantity of greaseand smoke produced. The strengthof the thermal plume is a major factor indeterminingthe exhaust rate. By their nature, these thermal plumes are very turbu-lent and different cooking processes have different “surge” characteristics. For ex-ample, the plume from hamburger cooking is strongestwhen flipping the burgers.Ovens and pressure fryers mayhave very little plume until they areopened to re-move food product. Open flame,non-thermostaticallycontrolled appliances, such
Page 2California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.0
 
Improving Commercial Kitchen Ventilation System Performance 
as underfired broilers and opentop ranges, exhibit strong steady plumes. Thermo-staticallycontrolled appliances, such as griddles and fryers have weaker plumes thatfluctuate in sequence with thermostat cycling (particularly gas-fired equipment). Astheplume rises by natural convection, it is captured by thehood and removed bythe suction of the exhaust fan. Air in theproximityof the appliancesand hoodmoves in to replace it. This replacement air, which originates as outside air, is re-ferred to as makeup air.
Wall-Mounted CanopyDouble-Island CanopyIsland Canopy
The design exhaust rate also depends on the hood style and design features.Wall-mounted canopy hoods, island (single or double) canopyhoods, and proximity(backshelf, pass-over, or eyebrow)hoodsall have differentcaptureareas and aremounted at differentheights relative to the cooking equipment (see Figure 1). Gen-erally,a single-island canopy hood requires more exhaust thana wall-mounted hood,and a wall-mounted hood requires more exhaust than a proximityhood. The per-formance of a double-island canopy tends to emulatethe performance of two back-to-back wall-canopyhoods, althoughthe lack of a physical barrierbetweenthe twohood sections makes the configuration more susceptible to cross drafts.Lastly, the layout of theHVAC and MUA distribution points can affecthood performance. These can be sources that disrupt thermalplumesand hindercapture and containment. Location of delivery doors, service doors, pass-throughopenings and drive-through windows canalsobe sources of cross drafts. Safety fac-tors are typically applied to the design exhaust rate to compensate for the effect thatundesired airmovement within the kitchen has on hood performance.
CKV System Performance Testing
The phrase "hood capture and containment" is definedin ASTM F-1704
Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen VentilationSystems
as "theability of thehood to capture and contain grease-ladencooking vapors, convectiveheat and other products ofcooking processes.Hood capture refersto theseprod-ucts entering the hood reservoir from thearea under the hood, while containmentrefers to these products staying in the hood reservoir and not spillingout into theadjacent space. The phrase"minimumcapture and containment" is defined as "theconditions of hood operation in whichminimum exhaust flow rates are just suffi-cient to capture and contain the productsgenerated by the appliance in idle orheavy-load cooking conditions, and at any intermediate prescribed load condition."The abbreviation “C&C” refers to the “minimum capture and containment” flowrateas defined in ASTM F-1704.
Proximity (Backshelf)
Figure 1. CKV Hood Types.Page 3California Energy Commission P500-03-034FRev 5.5.0

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