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Malaysia and Indonesia Conflict in Ambalat Block

Malaysia and Indonesia Conflict in Ambalat Block

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Published by: arisue531 on Apr 12, 2010
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11/13/2012

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Conflict Resolution Assignment
 
³Malaysia and Indonesia Conflict in Ambalat Block´
A.
 
BackgroundMap of Ambalat Block 
Th
e Ambalat Block 
Many people are not fully aware of the position of the Ambalat offshore area. Someeven do not realize that Ambalat is not an island but an offshore area as well as thename associated with two Indonesian oil exploration blocks located in the east of Borneo. The Ambalat offshore area referred to in this case is the overlapping areaclaimed by Indonesia and Malaysia between Indonesia's existing Ambalat and EastAmbalat and Malaysia's Block ND6 and ND7.According to discussion on this matter in an internet-based community, RSGIS Forum,Ambalat is a block roughly located in area within the coordinates of 118°15'21" -
 
118
°
1'15
" °34
'7
" 3°4
7'50
" i l t t i t l
5 km from Wes
t
 
t
o Eas
t
and 1
3
5 km from Sou
t
 
t
o Nor 
t
 
T e
H
i
of Indon
es
i-l
s
i
 
B
oundar
i
es
 
B
efore s
t
epp
i
ng
i
n
t
o Amba
l
a
t
case,
it
 
i
s necessary
t
o br 
i
ef 
l
y
l
ook back 
i
n
t
o
t
e h
i
s
t
oryof Indones
i
a-
M
a
l
ays
i
a boundary. D
i
scuss
i
on on boundary of 
t
he
t
o s
t
a
t
es,undoub
t
ed
l
y, canno
t
be separa
t
ed from
t
he co
l
on
i
a
l
h
i
s
t
ory of 
t
he Grea
t
 
B
it
a
i
n and
t
he Ne
t
her 
l
ands over 
B
orneo Is
l
and
l
ong
ti
me before
t
he
i
ndependence of 
M
a
l
ays
i
aand Indones
i
a.The 1891 Conven
ti
on
i
s a conven
ti
on be
t
een The Grea
t
 
B
it
a
i
n and
t
he Ne
t
her 
l
ands
t
o d
i
v
i
de
B
orneo Is
l
and
i
n
t
o
t
o reg
i
ons:
t
he nor 
t
hern par 
t
be
l
onged
t
o The Grea
t
 
B
it
a
i
n and
t
he sou
t
hern par 
t
was
t
he Ne
t
her 
l
ands¶. S
i
nce
t
he
i
ndependence era,
M
a
l
ays
i
a has been
t
he successor of 
B
it
a
i
n and Indones
i
a has been con
ti
nu
i
ng
t
he Ne
t
her 
l
ands¶ reg
i
me. In def 
i
n
i
ng
t
he
i
r boundary, espec
i
a
ll
y
l
and boundary, bo
t
hcoun
t
i
es have
t
o refer 
t
o
t
he 1891 Conven
ti
on agreed by The Grea
t
 
B
it
a
i
n and
t
he Ne
t
her 
l
ands.Land boundary be
t
ween Indones
i
a and
M
a
l
ays
i
a
i
s c
l
ear s
i
nce
t
he conven
ti
on hasc
l
ear 
l
y def 
i
ned
t
he
li
ne. The
li
ne crosses
t
he
l
a
tit
ude of 
10¶, approx
i
ma
t
e
l
y
4
50 kmnor 
t
h of equa
t
or. Unfor 
t
una
t
e
l
y,
t
he
li
ne s
t
ops a
t
 
t
he eas
t
ern edge of Seba
ti
k Is
l
and, so
t
ha
t
 
t
he ownersh
i
 p of sma
ll
 
i
s
l
ands and area
l
oca
t
ed
i
n
t
he Eas
t
of Seba
ti
i
s unc
l
ear.Th
i
s
i
s one of 
t
he prob
l
ems caus
i
ng Indones
i
a ³
l
oss´
t
wo
i
s
l
ands, S
i
 padan and L
i
g
it
an
i
n 1992.
B
o
t
h Indones
i
a and
M
a
l
ays
i
a have been ra
ti
i
ed Un
it
ed Na
ti
ons Conven
ti
on on
t
he Law Of 
t
he Sea/UNCLOS 1982 par 
t
IV. Th
i
s conven
ti
on def 
i
nes Indones
i
a as arch
i
 pe
l
ag
i
c s
t
a
t
ewh
i
ch have d
i
fferen
t
mar 
iti
me zone measured, d
i
fferen
t
w
it
h
M
a
l
ays
i
a as
t
he coas
t
a
l
s
t
a
t
e.
M
ar 
iti
me zones are measured from re
l
evan
t
base
li
nes
t
o a spec
i
i
ed d
i
s
t
ance
i
n
t
he un
it
of nau
ti
ca
l
m
il
es (N
M)
, accord
i
ng
t
o
t
he
t
ype of mar 
iti
me zone under cons
i
dera
ti
on. The LOSCes
t
ab
li
shed
t
he fo
ll
ow
i
ng mar 
iti
me zones, each of wh
i
ch var 
i
es
i
n
t
he degree of exc
l
us
i
ve
i
gh
t
s and con
t
ro
l
afforded
t
o a coas
t
a
l
s
t
a
t
e:
i
n
t
erna
l
wa
t
ers (
l
andward of base
li
nes
);
 arch
i
 pe
l
ag
i
c wa
t
ers (w
it
h
i
n arch
i
 pe
l
ag
i
c base
li
nes
);
 
t
err 
it
or 
i
a
l
sea of up
t
o a d
i
s
t
ance of 12
 
 N
M
from base
li
nes, con
ti
guous zone up
t
o 2
4
N
M
, Exc
l
us
i
ve Econom
i
c Zone (EEZ
)
up
t
o200 N
M
and Con
ti
nen
t
a
l
She
l
f usua
ll
y
t
o a
li
m
it
of no more
t
han
3
50 N
M
from re
l
evan
t
  base
li
nes.
 
T e
D
i
sp
ut
e
ov
e
r Amba
l
at
 
M
a
l
ays
i
a c
l
a
i
m over Amba
l
a
t
b
l
ock ar 
i
s
i
ng from
it
s 1979 map demarca
ti
ng
M
a
l
ays
i
a¶s mar 
iti
me boundary.
M
a
l
ays
i
a pub
li
shed a new map
i
n
t
wo shee
t
s
ill
us
t
ra
ti
ng
M
a
l
ays
i
a's c
l
a
i
med
l
and
t
err 
it
ory and
li
m
it
s of 
it
s mar 
iti
me c
l
a
i
ms, no
t
ab
l
y
t
err 
it
or 
i
a
l
sea and con
ti
nen
t
a
l
she
l
f. The map was crea
t
ed un
il
a
t
era
ll
y and s
ti
mu
l
a
t
ed pro
t
es
t
s from
it
s ne
i
ghbors because
it
s c
l
a
i
m excess
i
ve
l
y d
i
scoun
t
 
t
h
i
rd coun
t
i
es'mar 
iti
me
t
err 
it
or 
i
es.Indones
i
a and
M
a
l
ays
i
a¶s d
i
spu
t
e over par 
t
of 
t
he Ce
l
ebes (Su
l
awes
i)
Sea off 
t
he eas
t
 coas
t
of 
B
orneo (Ka
li
man
t
an
t
o Indones
i
a
)
,
t
ermed ³Amba
l
a
t
´ or 
t
he ³Amba
l
a
t
 offshore area´, emerged
i
n February-
M
arch 2005. The d
i
spu
t
e came
t
o prom
i
nence asa resu
lt
of 
t
he
i
ssu
i
ng of exp
l
ora
ti
on
li
censes for 
t
wo deep-wa
t
er o
il
concess
i
on b
l
ocks, ND6 and ND7, by
M
a
l
ays
i
a¶s na
ti
ona
l
o
il
company Pe
t
ronas
t
o
it
s own exp
l
ora
ti
onarm, Pe
t
ronas Car 
i
ga
li
,
i
n par 
t
nersh
i
 p w
it
h
i
n
t
erna
ti
ona
l
o
il
g
i
an
t
 
oya
l
Du
t
ch/She
ll
 Group on February 16. The
M
a
l
ays
i
an b
l
ocks
l
arge
l
y over 
l
ap w
it
h a brace of Indones
i
an b
l
ocks,
t
he Amba
l
a
t
b
l
ock and Eas
t
Amba
l
a
t
b
l
ock, wh
i
ch were
li
censed
t
o I
t
a
li
an o
il
major ENI and US-based o
il
mu
lti
na
ti
ona
l
Unoca
l
,
i
n December 200
4
.The conf 
li
c
ti
ng c
l
a
i
ms over mar 
iti
me boundary
t
err 
it
ory h
i
gh
li
gh
t
 
t
he po
t
en
ti
a
l
i
sk of conf 
li
c
t
 
i
n
t
he reg
i
on.
B
 
T e
Conf 
li
t Part
i
es
and I
ss
u
es
 
The d
i
spu
t
e
i
s
t
herefore d
i
rec
tl
y
li
nked
t
o
i
ssues of energy secur 
it
y
i
n
t
erms of secur 
i
ng seabed hydrocarbon resources for each s
t
a
t
e. The Indones
i
an
Mi
n
i
s
t
ry of Fore
i
gn Affa
i
rs
t
ermed
M
a
l
ays
i
a¶s ac
ti
on ³a v
i
o
l
a
ti
on of Indones
i
a¶s sovere
i
gn
t
y´ andwarned She
ll
 
t
o s
t
ay ou
t
of Indones
i
an wa
t
ers.
M
a
l
ays
i
an Fore
i
gn
Mi
n
i
s
t
er SyedHam
i
d A
l
 bar reac
t
ed by observ
i
ng
t
ha
t
wh
il
e Kua
l
a Lumpur had
i
ndeed rece
i
ved
t
he

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