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electrical potential and capacitors

# electrical potential and capacitors

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Chapter 5
Electric Potential and Capacitance
A A

d q B B m

d

E

g

(a)
:

(b)

F I G U R E 5 . 1 (a) When the electric ﬁeld E is directed downward, point B is at a lower electric potential than point A. When a positive test charge moves from A to B, the charge–ﬁeld system loses electric potential energy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object with mass m moves downward in the direction of the gravitational ﬁeld :, the object –ﬁeld system loses g gravitational potential energy.
E

B

∆r A
Chapter 5
Electric Potential and Capacitance
A A

d q B B m

d

E

g

(a)
:

(b)

F I G U R E 5 . 1 (a) When the electric ﬁeld E is directed downward, point B is at a lower electric potential than point A. When a positive test charge moves from A to B, the charge–ﬁeld system loses electric potential energy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object with mass m moves downward in the direction of the gravitational ﬁeld :, the object –ﬁeld system loses g gravitational potential energy.
E

B

∆r A

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04/28/2013

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E
)b()a(
F
IGURE
5.1
(a) When the electric ﬁeld is directeddownward, point
is at a lower electric potential thanpoint
A.
When a positive test charge moves from
to
B,
the charge–ﬁeld system loses electric potentialenergy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object withmass
moves downward in the direction of thegravitational ﬁeld , the objectﬁeld system losesgravitational potential energy.
:
E
:
E
r
θ
F
IGURE
5.2
A particle is movedin a uniform electric ﬁeld. Point
isat a lower potential than point
.Points
and
are at the
same
potential.
Electric Potential andCapacitance
Chapter 5

+
V
= 12 V
F
IGURE
5.3
(Example 5.1) A 12-V battery connected to two parallel plates. The electric ﬁeldbetween the plates has a magnitude given by thepotential difference
V
divided by the plateseparation
.

dr
θ
r
r
rr
s
F
IGURE
5.5
The potentialdifference between points
and
due to a point charge
depends
only
on the initialand ﬁnal radial coordinates
and
. The two dashed circlesrepresent cross-sect -ions of spherical equipo- tentialsurfaces.
– – –
v
v
= 0
E
F
IGURE
5.4
(Example 5.2) A proton accelerates from A to B in the direction of theelectric ﬁeld.