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electrical potential and capacitors

electrical potential and capacitors

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Chapter 5
Electric Potential and Capacitance
A A

d q B B m

d

E

g

(a)
:

(b)

F I G U R E 5 . 1 (a) When the electric field E is directed downward, point B is at a lower electric potential than point A. When a positive test charge moves from A to B, the charge–field system loses electric potential energy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object with mass m moves downward in the direction of the gravitational field :, the object –field system loses g gravitational potential energy.
E

B

∆r A
Chapter 5
Electric Potential and Capacitance
A A

d q B B m

d

E

g

(a)
:

(b)

F I G U R E 5 . 1 (a) When the electric field E is directed downward, point B is at a lower electric potential than point A. When a positive test charge moves from A to B, the charge–field system loses electric potential energy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object with mass m moves downward in the direction of the gravitational field :, the object –field system loses g gravitational potential energy.
E

B

∆r A

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Published by: p_k_soni_iit_physics on Apr 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/28/2013

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E
)b()a(
F
IGURE
5.1
(a) When the electric field is directeddownward, point 
is at a lower electric potential thanpoint 
A.
When a positive test charge moves from
to
B,
the charge–field system loses electric potentialenergy. (b) A gravitational analogy: When an object withmass
moves downward in the direction of thegravitational field , the objectfield system losesgravitational potential energy.
:
E
:
E
r
θ 
F
IGURE
5.2
A particle is movedin a uniform electric field. Point 
isat a lower potential than point 
.Points
and
are at the
same 
potential.
Electric Potential andCapacitance
Chapter 5
 
+
V  
= 12 V 
F
IGURE
5.3
(Example 5.1) A 12-V battery connected to two parallel plates. The electric fieldbetween the plates has a magnitude given by thepotential difference
V  
divided by the plateseparation
.
 
dr 
θ 
r
r
rr
s
F
IGURE
5.5
The potentialdifference between points
and
due to a point charge
depends
only 
on the initialand final radial coordinates
and
. The two dashed circlesrepresent cross-sect -ions of spherical equipo- tentialsurfaces.
– – – 
 v 
 v 
= 0
E
F
IGURE
5.4
(Example 5.2) A proton accelerates from A to B in the direction of theelectric field.

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