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Protection of Transmission Lines Using Series Compensation Capacitors

Protection of Transmission Lines Using Series Compensation Capacitors

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 1
Protection of Transmission Lines using SeriesCompensation Capacitors in Cameroon-Southern Interconnected System.
Dan Nchelatebe Nkwetta, Vu Van Thong,
Student Member, IEEE 
, and Ronnie Belmans,
Fellow, IEEE 
 
Abstract-The continuous increase in disturbances on theCameroon Southern interconnected electric power systemresulting in its inability to reliably meet demands due toimproperly protected and old unmaintained transmission anddistribution systems, insufficient investment and upgrade of infrastructures. Furthermore, rapid load growth and low waterlevels of the reservoirs create much stress on the power balanceproblem and on the existing transmission lines. In this paper, aprotection system for transmission lines using series capacitors isdiscussed in detail.
 Keywords: Protection, Disturbances, Series compensation,Transmission system.
1.
 
INTRODUCTIONThe existing national electricity generation and transmissionsystem in Cameroon under AES SONEL is principallyseparated in to three independent subsystems, the southerninterconnected system, the northern system, and the easternsystemCurrently the southern interconnected systems is not able tomeet the demands, especially in the dry seasons due todisturbances, low water levels of the reservoirs, low rainfalllevels, insufficient investment in transmission, distributioninfrastructures, and thermal generation. The imbalancebetween the supply and the demand is exacerbated by manydisturbances occurring on the lines and rapid demand growthover the last five years. The electricity in this interconnectedsystem is mainly generated from old hydro power stations atEdea and Song- loulou, both on the Sanaga River.[4-6]Since building new transmission lines are difficult andexpensive, reinforcement and or optimisation of existing onesare the solutions in common used. The transmission systemsare increasingly over-loaded. This may reduce system stabilitymargins, thus accurate and fast fault clearance is needed.In order to carry out transmission network reinforcement, aseries capacitor compensation method being one of thesimplest and cheapest methods is use. The series capacitor isused to increase power transfer capacity and voltageregulation ability, reduce power losses and inductive reactanceof the transmission lines.
D.N. Nkwetta, V.V. Thong, and R. Belmans are with Department of ElectricalEngineering, research group ELECTA Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium(Email: dan.nchelatebenkwetta@esat.kuleuven.be,http://www.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/electa)
However, series capacitors, having non-linear componentsincluding thyristor controls, turns to introduce harmonics,subsynchronous resonance in generators resulting from shortcircuits, line switching, This may undermine the effectivenessof distance protection relays. The distance protection relaylooks at the voltage to current ratio to determine the faultdistance and is able to detect if the fault is within or out of itsprotection zones. If it could be possible to know that thecapacitor forms part of the fault circuit, then the settings of therelay could be corrected, but this is not always known inadvance.Furthermore, it is always very difficult to measure thefundamental frequency component of the voltage and currentas placing the series capacitor; the system becomes an RLCresonant circuit. Determining whether or not the capacitor isin fact involved in any given fault loop and successfulcalculation of the compensated line current for the phase toground faults are problems, using the dedicated logic forseries compensation with the presence of harmonics mayincrease the security to the distance elements.In this paper, different solutions are compared, discussed andsolutions for the above issues are provided.In general some compensation equipment in existenceincludes;- High voltage power capacitors one phase and three phaseunits for film power and surge protection.- High voltage capacitors banks.- Enclosed automatic capacitor banks for medium voltage upto 36 kV.- Harmonic filters and C – type filters which are use to reduceharmonic current due to non-linear loads.- Low voltage power capacitor units.- Fixed and automatic capacitor bank.- Thyristor-switched capacitor bank. [9]
11. CAMEROON-SOUTHERN INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM 
In Cameroon, the following voltages exist:- Low voltage: 380V/220V- Medium voltage: 10kV-15kV – 30kV- High voltage: 90kV-110kV- Very High Voltage: 225kV
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The southern interconnected system is made up of;- 480 km of 225kV lines- 863 km of 90kV lines. [10]For the protection of lines we have:Distance protection schemes (non pilot protections). Theprinciple here is that the fault is detected by measuring theimpedance on the line. This method allows for multiple Zonedistance protections.Pilot protection scheme uses a communication path to sendsignals from the relaying system at one end of the line to thatat the other end. Since information for processing is from bothends of the line, the protection decisions made by relays aremore intelligent. The conditions (currents and voltages) atboth ends of the line are monitored. These signals are sent tothe local relay equipment only, where trip signals may begenerated and sent to the circuit breaker at the local relaylocation.Phase comparison relaying, which is differential in nature andbase on the fact that it compares the phase current at both endsof the line to see if there is any fault on the line. This methodrequires a communication between the line terminals, which iscostly to install and maintained.It is necessary having both the pilot and non-pilot protectionschemes on the transmission lines. However, the non-pilotprotection scheme is used here in preference to the pilotprotection due to the following reasons:
 
Non-pilot schemes are based on measurement of impedance and it is needless constructingcommunication links, which are the main elements inthe pilot scheme thus reducing cost.
 
The communication link is very weak and may leadto failure of the pilot system.
 
The communication link is very costly to install andrequire regular maintenance.
 
The communication link is volatile andcommunication can be lost if the relay involves failto operate for an actual fault as they do not see a tripsignal from the opposite end of the line or the relayinvolves operates when there is no fault due to thefact that there is no block signal seen.
 
It is easily calculating the positive sequenceimpedance of the fault using only two quantities theresistance (R) and the reactance (X) and once it isinterpreted, it become easy to locate the fault andthen makes a relaying decision. [1], [3]Reliable operation of the distance protection schemes dependson the accuracy of impedance measured. Due to uncertainty inthese measurements, it is necessary to rely on stepped zones of protection not keeping aside the speed with which a fault canbe cleared.
Time
This system protects any given zone of transmission line withmultiple zones. The functioning of the system is as follows toavoid unnecessary tripping of the relays.
 
Zone 1
: The tripping within this zone of protection is with nointentional delay. This zone must underreach the remote endof the line, since it is not possible to distinguish the exactlocation of the faults near the remote bus. This zone covers 85to 90% of the total line length for phase relays and about 75%for ground relays.
Zone 2
: The purpose of this zone is to cover the remote end of the line not covered by zone 1 protection. Zone 2 must reachwell beyond the remote bus. This requires a time delay inorder to coordinate with the zone 1 protection of the adjacentline relay at H.
Bekoko
 
LogbabaDeidoBonaberiBassa15kV15kV15kV 15kV15kV30kV90kV90kV90kV225kVFig.2. Interconnection of the Southern SystemZ3T2Z1T3Z2
R
Fig.3. Three Zones of Distance Protection Relays.Distance380/220V10kV15kV90kV90 kVloulouBassaogbabaFig.1.High Voltage and Very High Voltage10kV 225kV225kVSong-L
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About 0.25seconds plus the adjacent breaker opening time isusually recommended to assure this coordination. If theremote relay is a time over-current relay rather than a distancerelay, a longer coordination time setting is recommended.The impedance setting of zone 2 protections should be at least120% of the protected line impedance. Zone 2 of the relay Rprotection should not overreach the zone 1 of the adjacentdownstream relay.
Zone 3
.The primary purpose of this zone of protection is tobackup the failure of the breaker at H. If this breaker fails toopen for a fault on its protected line, the breaker at R shouldbe caused to open as a backup protection. The time delay forzone 3 protections should be much longer at about 1 to 2seconds.Delay tripping at
zones 2
and
3
faults allows time for
zone 1
 reaction of the relay on the adjacent line if the fault is actuallyon that line section and also ensures co-ordination thusavoiding the shutting down of longer sections of the line thanneeded for fault clearing. The faults occurring at zone 2 turnto cause more damage to the system since the faults cannot becleared instanteously from remote ends. [1]On considering a three-phase system, there are total of tendifferent types of faults to be handle by six relays (three phasedistance and three ground distance relays) for eachtransmission line. The figures below are used to represent thesymmetrical component of each fault, which are the positive,negative and the zero sequence impedances interacting indifferent ways based on the system operation state.
 III. EFFECTS OF SERIES CAPACITOR ON DISTANCE PROTECTION RELAY 
All series capacitors are equipped with protective elements toeither reduce or eliminate over voltage across the capacitors.The protection can be a spark gap set to flashover at a givenvoltage (introducing a varying resistance component) or ametal oxide varistor using complex energy monitoringschemes (introducing a varying and a non –linear resistance)or a circuit breaker which closes during a fault creating abypass around the capacitor for high fault currents.The simplest series capacitor protection scheme (spark gap)removes the series capacitor when the series capacitor voltageexceeds a chosen threshold. However, the spark gap firingvoltage threshold should be high enough that the spark gapdoes not fire the external faults.The metal-oxide varistors on the other hand does not fullyremove the series capacitor, thus the capacitive reactance canbe very non-linear. The effective reactance of the metal-oxidevaristor protected bank can be approximated using an iterativemodel.A series capacitor also creates discontinuity in the apparentimpedance of the line when view from the relay site and this isdue to the negative reactance value of the capacitor, thus farend faults may appear to be outside zone 1 and may not tripduring zone 2 time while close in faults will appear to bereverse faults due to the fact that the reactive component of the fault impedance seen is negative and relay may trips forfaults it shouldn’t.However the above problems are solved using a time delay,which gives the capacitor’s protection time to arc andeffectively removed the capacitor from the circuit altogetherand accurate measurement of impedance.As the transmission line load increases, the impedance seen bythe relay decreases and the relay turn to confuse normal loadfor a fault at some points (loadability limits)
Fig.4. Series capacitor protection
 IV. THREE PHASE SYSTEM 
Fig.5. Phase to Ground Fault Symmetrical Network Fig.6. Phase-to-Phase Fault Symmetrical Network 
 
Capacitork GapSparMetal Oxide VaristorCircuit BreakerE
0
X
0
E
2
E
1
X
c
X
c
X
1
X
c
X
2
x
1
 
X
2
x
1
 
X
1
X
c
X
c
X
0
E
1
E
2
E
0
X
c
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IEEE B
ENELUX
Y
OUNG
R
ESEARCHERS
S
YMPOSIUM IN
E
LECTRICAL
P
OWER
E
NGINEERING
27-28 A
PRIL
2006, G
HENT
, B
ELGIUM
paper no. 17 3

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