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Thermalysis-converting Waste Plastic to Diesel

Thermalysis-converting Waste Plastic to Diesel

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Published by Ravi Kumar

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Published by: Ravi Kumar on Apr 25, 2010
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THERMALSIS- CONVERTING WASTE PLASTIC TO DIESEL
ABSTRACT
Twenty per cent of municipal waste is non-biodegradable plastic, which currently endsup in landfill, thereby creating pollution. With the relentless problem of landfill sitelocations continuing to present difficulties to councils and waste collection agencies, thesingle biggest cost of waste management today is transport. Many councils are nowforced to pay huge rates per ton simply to move the waste out of the collection areas andinto the landfill sites. Although many methods such as incineration and recycling arethere but they have again some drawbacks. To overcome this problem a new technologyhas been developed for their better disposal. The Ozmotech Thermalysis system convertsthese waste plastics into high- grade "Green" distillate fuel. Thermalysis has provensuccessful, and is economically viable. The results of this extensive R&D program is avirtually non-polluting, (100%) synthetic fuel which does not require engine modificationfor maximum efficiency. The resultant distillates are unmatched for environmentalquality and economic viability. Existing diesel engines can run fully effectively on this“green fuel” and meet year 2004 standards with no engine modification. Post consumer, post-industrial unwashed and unsorted waste plastics are the feedstocks for theThermalysis process, and with a production efficiency of over 95%, the resultant dieseloutput almost equals the waste material input.
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One tonne of waste plastic will, on average, produce 930 - 980 litres of diesel fuel,with just 10 - 50 ppm sulphur content.
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Production costs, including capital costs recovery and operating costs, are generallyunder 40 cents per litre.
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Green Distillate weighs approximately the same as virgin Diesels, and contains thesame energy (BTU rating) per litre.There are no tradeoffs between engine performance and emissions and minimal additivesare required. The fuels are suitable for all stationery diesel engines including generators,as well as all road engines including trucks and buses, and heavy machinery.Green Distillates combustion constituents reflect:
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Minimal CO (emissions of carbon monoxide)
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 just 12ppm Nitrogen oxides.Green Distillates can replace virgin diesel fuel in unmodified Diesel engines operatingwithout expensive catalytic converters and is an ideal fuel for boilers, internalcombustion engines and turbines. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) reduction of 100:1 andrecycling waste plastic into diesel fuel makes this system unique.
 
INTRODUCTION
Thermalysis is a process whereby scrap and waste plastics are converted into liquidhydrocarbons that can be used as fuels. The system uses liquefaction, pyrolysis, and thecatalytic breakdown of plastics. The system can handle almost all the plastics that iscurrently being sent to landfills The major advantage of the process is its ability to handleunsorted, unwashed plastic. This means that heavily contaminated plastics such as mulchfilm can be processed without difficulty. The same applies to siliche wrap, trickle tapeand other agricultural plastics. Other normally hard to recycle plastics such as laminatesoft incompatible polymers; multilayer films or polymer mixtures can also be processedwith ease unlike in conventional plastic recycling techniques. Most plastics can be processed directly even if contaminated with dirt, aluminum laminates, printing inks, oilresidues etc.
CURRENT SITUATION OF RECYCLING OF PLASTICS
Various methodologies have been tried and tested to process waste plastics for manyyears, with recycling becoming the most common methods reflecting the needs of thetime. Plastics that cannot be processed are handled by waste management companies byland filling or incineration in recent years, building or expanding of incinerators has become difficult due to the opposition from governments and community groups withenvironmental concerns, most notably the level of the emissions. Liquefaction of plasticsis the superior method of reuse of the resource. The distillate product is an excellent fueland makes Thermalysis one of the best, economically feasible and environmentallysensitive systems in the world today. Thermalysis fuels are used as fuel for diesel burners, trucks and generators.
STRUCTURE OF THE SYSTEM
The system consists of feedstock infeed, pyrolysis gasification chamber, catalyticconverter, condensers, centrifuge, oil recovery line off gas cleaning and adulterantremoval. Waste plastics are loaded into the pyrolysis chamber. The chamber is generallyfilled in 30 min When the chamber temperature is raised, the plastics begin to melt andagitation commences to even the temperature. Pyrolysis then commenses.The gas goesthrough the patented converter and is converted to the distillate fraction by the catalyticcracking process. The distillate the n passes through the recovery tank after cooling in thecondenser. From the recovery tank, the product is sent to remove contaminants such aswater or carbon. The cleaner distillate is then pumped to the reserve tank where a smallquantity drawn off as fuel for the system itself. The remaining product is pumped to thestorage tanks.
SYSTEMS INSTALLED
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Consumat and Pactherm system
It is dedicated to the efficient, low emission reduction of Municipal, Commercial andIndustrial wastes. Both systems reduce MSW and other common wastes by a factor of 100:1, leaving little else but an inert ash as a residue.
 
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Startech Plasma Converter
It is a waste management system which introduces plasma to the chamber, and actuallyalters and breaks down the molecular structure of the materials inside. It is speciallysuited to hospital and similar infectious wastes, toxic materials that would otherwisecause long term damage to the environment. These include asbestos and othecarcinogens, oil and chemicals
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Bio-energizer 
Probiotic products which excite bacterial activity in waste waters, reduces sludges,fats,greases and other bio-solids.Bio-energizer can be used in all applications from smallgrease traps to major treatment lagoons.
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Nytrox
Ozone generation equipment which is highly efective in the elimination of bacteria,especially Legionella, in building cooling towers.
 
THE OPERATIONS
PYROLYSIS
Pyrolysis is the process of thermal disintegration in the absence of oxygen. Plastic wasteis continuously treated in a cylindrical chamber and the pyrolytic gases condensed in aspecially designed chamber system to yield hydrocarbon distillate comprising straightand branched chain aliphatics, cyclic aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons. The resultingmixture is essentially equivalent to petroleum distillate. Each Thermalysis plant can process upto 8 tonnes per day of waste plastics converting it to approximately 7,500 lt of high quality distillate. The plastic is pyrolised at 385-425
o
C and the pyrolysis gases arecondensed in a specially designed 3- stage condenser to give a low sulphur contentdistillate.The essential steps in the pyrolysis of plastics involves: 
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Evenly heating the plastic to a narrow temperature range without excessivetemperature variations.
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Excluding oxygen from pyrolysis chamber 
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Managing the carbonaceous char by-product before it acts as a thermal insulator andlowers the heat transfer to the plastic.
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Careful condensation and the fractionation of the pyrolysis vapours to producedistillate of good quality and consistency.The heart of the pyrolysis system is the pyrolysis chamber which performs the essentialfunctions of melting, homogenization controlled decomposition and out gassing in asingle process. The process requires minimal maintenance apart from the carbon residueremoval and produces consistent quality distillate from the mixed and low grade plasticwaste. The key to the efficient pyrolysis process is to ensure that the plastic is heated

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