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P. 1
physics AS level work

physics AS level work

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Published by Harry Sedgwick
half of module 1 notes and full module 3 notes
half of module 1 notes and full module 3 notes

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Harry Sedgwick on May 24, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/28/2013

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Harry Sedgwick teacher:Verity BullenSubject: physicsMODULE 1 – atoms and stuff The electromagnetic spectrum -
 The smaller the wavelength the more energy waves carry(Least energy - long wavelength)Radio, microwaves, infra red, UV light, X-ray andGamma rays (most energy - short wavelength)Radio - telecommunications, radioMicrowaves - telecommunications, cookingInfra red - cookingVisible - telecommunications, optical fibersUV light - security in dark, sun bedsX-ray - medical usesGamma rays -All waves are speed of light (3x10 to 8) ‘C’What are we looking at this term?Refraction
Snell’s lawTIRPhotoelectric effectElectrons - collisions, ionization, excitation, and energy levelsWave - particle dualityRefraction - change in direction of wave due to change in its speed e.g. when awave passes from one material to another. -
When a beam of light passes from aless dense material to another It bends towards the ‘normal‘ -
(Normal is 90° to the point it hits)- How can we calculate by how much the angle is refracted? -
Snell’s law – n x sinθ = n x sinθ
(law of refraction) e.g.
 
 Table to help with different velocities -
material Velocity
Vacuum 1.0000 lowestAir 1.0003Water 1.333Glass - (Perspex 1.63) 1.5Diamond 2.417Gallium phosphate 3.50 HighestQuestions -
Feynman diagrams -
 
The photoelectric effect -
Is an electron a particle or a wave? - They both exhibit properties of particles andwaves! E.g. electrons can be used as waves in electron microscopes. Light inthe form of can displace particles (this is the photoelectric effect)For an electron to be ejected from the surface of a -Metal - Energy incident > work functionLight - Energy incident = intensity of light = amplitude (increasing intensity doesnot EJECT electrons if none where emitted at low intensityPhoton - intensity = number of photons- For a given metal there is a minimum freq which will eject an electron- The number of electrons emitted = number of protons- The Ek of electrons = the frequency or incident radiation(Ek = more energy being let out) (Ek = 0.5xMxV²)
 
Energy photon = frequency
(E=Hf)
<- planks constant - important equation- E= Hf < W = eO - energy < work function (in this case no electronemitted) (work function is the least amount of energy needed to knock an electronof the surface of a metal)Energy of moving electron -> Ek = 0.5xMxV²
Hf 
(energy in) =
EO
(work to remove electron from surface) +
0.5xMxV²
(energyof electron once emitted)- Work function
Hf =
+ E- Threshold frequency
f =
/h

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