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Petroleum Geology and Reservoirs

Petroleum Geology and Reservoirs

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Published by Roid Faqih Musthafa
petroleum geology
petroleum geology

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Published by: Roid Faqih Musthafa on May 15, 2010
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08/03/2013

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Note:
The source of the technical material in this volume is the ProfessionalEngineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
Warning:
The material contained in this document was developed for SaudiAramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees.Any material contained in this document which is not already in the publicdomain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to thirdparties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permissionof the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : General Engineering For additional information on this subject, contactFile Reference: AGE-106.03 PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556
Engineering Encyclopedia
 
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND RESERVOIRS
 
Engineering Encyclopedia Introduction to Exploration, Drillling and Petroleum EngineeringPetroleum Geology and ReservoirsSaudi Aramco DeskTop Standards i
Section Page
INFORMATION...............................................................................................................4
 
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................4
 
ROCK STRUCTURES....................................................................................................4
 
Earth Structure.....................................................................................................4
 
Classes of Rock....................................................................................................9
 
Igneous Rock.............................................................................................9
 
Sedimentary Rock..............................................................................................11
 
Metamorphic Rock..............................................................................................16
 
Historical Geology..............................................................................................23
 
The Rock Record.....................................................................................23
 
Geologic Time Scale..........................................................................................26
 
GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS.........................................................................31
 
Source Rock.......................................................................................................31
 
STORAGE OF HYDROCARBONS...............................................................................33
 
Reservoir Rock...................................................................................................33
 
Porosity..............................................................................................................33
 
Fluid Saturations......................................................................................34
 
Permeability.............................................................................................39
 
Geologic Traps...................................................................................................42
 
Anticlinal Traps........................................................................................43
 
Fault Traps.........................................................................................................47
 
Salt Dome Traps......................................................................................48
 
Stratigraphic Unconformity.................................................................................50
 
Facies Change...................................................................................................52
 
Types of Reservoirs............................................................................................53
 
PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBONS.........................................................................56
 
Absolute Permeability.........................................................................................57
 
Relative Permeability..........................................................................................61
 
Relative Permeability Curves..............................................................................68
 
Porosity Versus Permeability..............................................................................72
 
ESTIMATION OF HYDROCARBON VOLUMES...........................................................75
 
Reservoir Mapping.............................................................................................75
 
Structural Contour Map............................................................................75
 
 
Engineering Encyclopedia Introduction to Exploration, Drillling and Petroleum EngineeringPetroleum Geology and ReservoirsSaudi Aramco DeskTop Standards ii
Isopach Map............................................................................................76
 
Estimating Original Oil-in-Place..........................................................................78
 
Estimating Original Gas-in-Place........................................................................79
 
GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................80
 
List of Figures
Figure 1. Structure of the Earth......................................................................................5
 
Figure 2. Graphic Representation of Earth Surface Elevation Relative to SeaLevel.............................................................................................................6
 
Figure 3. Typical Major Ocean Cross-Section................................................................7
 
Figure 4. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sample of Granite...........10
 
Figure 5. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sample of Sandstone..................................................................................................11
 
Figure 6. Offshore Depositional Environment...............................................................17
 
Figure 7. Geologic Cross-section of Appalachian Mountain Region of NorthAmerica......................................................................................................20
 
Figure 8. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sample of Gneiss............21
 
Figure 9. Summary of Relative Characteristics of Igneous, Sedimentary, andMetamorphic Rocks....................................................................................22
 
Figure 10. Principle of Superposition Applied to a Sedimentary Basin.........................24
 
Figure 11. Geologic Eras of the Age of the Earth.........................................................27
 
Figure 12. Temperature Window for Generating Hydrocarbons...................................32
 
Figure 13. Hydrocarbon Reservoir with Gas Cap, Oil Zone, and Water Zone..............35
 
Figure 14. Hydrocarbon Reservoir with No Gas Cap (Oil Zone and Water Zone Only)..................................................................................................36
 
Figure 15. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sandstone:Sample A....................................................................................................38
 
Figure 16. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sandstone:Sample B....................................................................................................41
 
Figure 17. Graphical Representation of Microscopic View of Sandstone:Sample C....................................................................................................41
 
Figure 18. Anticlinal Hydrocarbon Trap with Gas Cap..................................................44
 
Figure 19. Anticlinal Hydrocarbon Trap with No Gas Cap............................................46
 

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