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metal Laboratory Techniques

metal Laboratory Techniques

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Guidelines for Shop Inspection Laboratory Techniques
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Laboratory Techniques – 
LABORATORY TECHNIQUES
Chemical Analysis
(XRF) X-Ray Florescence 
XRF is an emission spectrographic technique which has found wide applications in elementalidentification and quantitative determination without regard to form or oxidation state invarious solid and liquid materials and compositions. XRF can also be used in thedetermination of thickness of thin films of metal on various substrates. Sampling depth mayrange form a few micrometers to a millimetre or more, depending on x-ray energy used andmatrix composition of the sample.
(OES) Optical Emission Spectroscopy 
These instruments enable the rapid quantitative determination of a wide range of alloysincluding; carbon/low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, aluminum alloys, nickel alloys,and copper alloys. Relatively simple sample preparation allows rapid turnaround of resultsusing this technique.
(GDS) Glow Discharge 
Similar to OES, GDS is used extensively for metal analysis. The straight line calibrationsimilar to ICP makes this technique particularly attractive for the analysis of stainless steel,nickel, aluminum and copper alloys."Qualitative depth profiling", is an application providing advanced capabilities in chemicaldepth profiling and is particularly used for surface analysis. The analysis is conducted atincremental depths starting from the surface of the material. A full spectrum of analysis isthen graphically presented which represents exactly the concentrations of all the pertinent
 
Guidelines for Shop Inspection Laboratory Techniques
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Laboratory Techniques – 
elements with respect to the depth profile. This technique has many applications and isextremely useful for the analysis of metallurgical surface treatments and coatings. It is also avaluable analytical tool for corrosion investigation work . Typical applications includeevaluation of metallic coating problems . Cause of dull or discoloured regions. Phosphorousconcentration in electroless nickel. Analysis of electroplated hot-dipped galvanized,galvalume, galfan and galvaneal. Evaluation of heat treated components (surface / casetreatment). Profiling of carburized, nitrided and carbonitrided surfaces. Routine coatingevaluation, including composition, coating thickness and coating weight, adhesion problems
(EDS) Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - Microprobe 
Electron probe microanalysis combines structural and compositional analysis in oneoperation. Microanalysis provides information concerning specimen composition on amicroscopic scale. This creates the possibility of local analysis of a small region on thespecimen surface. Elemental compositions can be mapped for homogeneity and heterogeneityat the micrometer scale. For example, EDS can provide analysis of individual inclusions insteel and other alloys, and can be used as a semi-quantitative method in nuclear applications.
FT-IR 
FT-IR is used for the identification of organic or inorganic coatings or contaminations onmetal surfaces.
Combustion; Carbon & Sulfur 
Combustion carbon and sulfur determination is accepted as the most accurate method fordetermining carbon and sulfur in metal, ore and powder samples. These samples may be in theform of solid material, drillings or powders. This technique is used mainly to complement ICPor OES analysis for the full chemical analysis of metallic samples.
Gas Analysis; Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen 
Inert gas fusion techniques are offered for quantitative content of these gases in metals.Processed materials are subjected to gas absorption as the material is initially cooled andworked. Also during drawing, rolling, heat treatment or annealed processes. When gasabsorption is controlled during these processes, it will minimize their adverse effects onmaterial strength.
(GC/MS) Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectroscopy 
This technique is commonly used in the analysis of petroleum oil, coal gasification andliquefaction products, drugs, metalobics, food products, perfume, cosmetics, plasticizers,pesticides, pollutants in air, waste water and solid waste, products and by-products of manufacturing processes, and solvents used in manufacturing processes.
 
Guidelines for Shop Inspection Laboratory Techniques
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Guidelines for Shop Inspection – Laboratory Techniques – 
Mechanical Testing
Introduction 
Major branches of engineering depend on the results of mechanical tests for design and/orquality control purposes. Test specimens are prepared for metallic and non-metallic materialsin the evaluation of tensile, compression, impact, fracture toughness, fatigue and bendproperties. Routine testing of fasteners, chain materials, weld coupons, wire rope, castings,sheet, plate, forgings and other components is done in an expedient manner providing anefficient, quality conscious service. Many fabricators, heat treaters and foundries rely onmechanical testing services to facilitate early production release or production start. Somematerials require more in-depth testing, such as dynamic fracture test, or cryogenic andelevated temperature mechanical properties.
Bend 
Bend testing is a procedure to determine the relative ductility of metal that is to be formed(usually sheet, strip, plate or wire) or to determine soundness and toughness of metal (afterwelding, etc.) The specimen is usually bent over a specified diameter mandrel. The fourgeneral types of bends are; free bend, guided bend (ASTM E190), semi-guided bend (ASTME290), and wrap around bend.
Compression 
Compression testing is a method for assessing the ability of a material to withstandcompressive loads. This test is commonly used as a simple measure of workability of metal,particularly in forging and similar bulk deformation processes. Engine mounts, bolstersprings, cast products, and similar components are tested to determine load versusdisplacement.
Plastic Strain Ratio, ASTM E517 
This test method determines the plastic strain ratio, r, of sheet metal intended for deep-drawing applications. “r” is a parameter that indicates the ability of a sheet metal to resistthinning or thickening when subjected to either tensile or compressive forces in the plane of the sheet. It is a measure of sheet steel drawability.
Ring Flattening Test, ASTM A513 
This Procedure tests the ability of a section of tube approximately 4” in length to flare (with atool having a 60° included angle) until the tube at the mouth of the flare has been expanded15% of the inside diameter, without cracking or showing flaws.

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