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The Garden as Architecture

The Garden as Architecture

Ratings: (0)|Views: 4,738|Likes:
Published by dan mihalache
Form and Spirit in the Gardens of Japan, China, and Korea
1 Early Prototypes and Interpretive Approaches .
City Plan Prototype and Interpretation: Changan and Heian-kyo 6
Shinden-Zukuri Architecture: Symmetrical Prototype, Simplified Interpretations 10
The Abandonment ofSymmetry 10
Architectural Design Solutions That Address Spatial Constraints 12
Prototypes and Interpretations in Shinden-Zukuri Gardens 13
The Six Basic Elements of Garden Composition 17
The Design Process: Stylized Forms (Yo) and Modeling After (Manabi) 22
Garden Design Solutions That Address Spatial Constraints 25
The Garden As Architecture 29
2 Shinden-Zukuri As Prototype, and Two Divergent Interpretations
From Abbreviation to Abstraction 34
Keand the North Garden 34
Hareand the South Garden 38
Decorative Arrangement ofthe Shotn-Zukuri [odan Zashiki 49
Shotn-Zukuri Gardens and Kana-School Wall Paintings 55
The Threshold ofthe Garden As Architecture 58
3 Kinetic, Multifaceted Gardens and Miegakure
Miegakure Linking Qualitatively Similar Garden Areas 62
Combined Shain/Sukiya/SoanStructures: Miegakure Linking Qualitatively
Distinct Buildings and Gardens 68
The Stroll Garden: Miegakure Linking Qualitatively Different Garden Areas 74
. •••••••••••••••••••••••••3
•••••••••••••••••••32
••••••••••••••••61
CHINA
4 Coexisting «Unworldly" and «Mundane" Worlds
Traditional Chinese Dwellings 83
Hall and Courtyard Composition 83
Climatic Influences 90
Lifestyle: Hierarchal Private/Communal Composition 91
Contemporary Housing: Single-Family Style 100
Courtyards (Ting) Versus Gardens 100
............................................................. 83
5 Spatial Composition of the Unworldly•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••103
Ting Yuan, Prototype of the Yuanlin 103
Garden-Related Terminology 106
An Outline ofthe History of Chinese Gardens 106
The Garden Treatise Yuan Ye 108
Private Yuanlin: Compositional Techniques 110
6 Ideology and Prototypes ...................................................... •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••119
Confucian Thought and Social Structure 119
Prototype of Ting Yuan and Yuanlin-Chinese Landscape Painting Theory 120
Hierarchical Dwelling Composition 127
The "Mundane" and the "Unworldly" 127
KOREA
7 Traditional Korean Residences and Their Gardens •••••••••••••••••••••••131
Influences on the Composition of Traditional Korean Residences 132
Location: Factors Based on the Geomantic Principles of P'ungsu 132
Social Status: Factors Based on the Traditional Hierarchical Class System 134
Social Mores: Factors Based on Confucian Principles 137
Function: Factors Based on the Ondol System of Heating 143
Locality: Factors Related to the Dwelling's Locale (Urban Versus Rural) 149
Ch'ae and Madang: Combined Interior and Exterior Spaces 150
Comparison of Korean with Chinese and Japanese Residences 158
8 The "Uncultivated" Garden .
Defining the Korean Approach to Garden Making 160
Borrowed Scenery Versus Prospect 163
Prospect and Borrowed Scenery in the Composition of Residences 164
Twitmadang (Rear Garden)-A Private Exterior Space 166
Outer Gardens-The Traditional Form Presented to the Outside World 173
The Pyolso Environment 178
Korean Garden Forms 184
I have been studying traditional Japanese dwellings
(minka) since 1962, particularly in the Kansai, Chubu,
and Tohoku regions, and have continued to follow the
transformations in these homes with great interest over
the years. My motivation was very simple-I was interested
in the question of why these buildings had survived in
Japan. Were minka the only example of buildings that had
retained their original wood-frame skeletal structure from
their construction in the Edo period, through the Meiji
and Taisho eras and the turbulent Showa period into
postwar, modern Japan? And if so, why? My interest
stemmed from a fundamental doubt about modern
methods of designing and building homes, especially the
methods used in multi-storied housing complexes, which
are not designed with a
Form and Spirit in the Gardens of Japan, China, and Korea
1 Early Prototypes and Interpretive Approaches .
City Plan Prototype and Interpretation: Changan and Heian-kyo 6
Shinden-Zukuri Architecture: Symmetrical Prototype, Simplified Interpretations 10
The Abandonment ofSymmetry 10
Architectural Design Solutions That Address Spatial Constraints 12
Prototypes and Interpretations in Shinden-Zukuri Gardens 13
The Six Basic Elements of Garden Composition 17
The Design Process: Stylized Forms (Yo) and Modeling After (Manabi) 22
Garden Design Solutions That Address Spatial Constraints 25
The Garden As Architecture 29
2 Shinden-Zukuri As Prototype, and Two Divergent Interpretations
From Abbreviation to Abstraction 34
Keand the North Garden 34
Hareand the South Garden 38
Decorative Arrangement ofthe Shotn-Zukuri [odan Zashiki 49
Shotn-Zukuri Gardens and Kana-School Wall Paintings 55
The Threshold ofthe Garden As Architecture 58
3 Kinetic, Multifaceted Gardens and Miegakure
Miegakure Linking Qualitatively Similar Garden Areas 62
Combined Shain/Sukiya/SoanStructures: Miegakure Linking Qualitatively
Distinct Buildings and Gardens 68
The Stroll Garden: Miegakure Linking Qualitatively Different Garden Areas 74
. •••••••••••••••••••••••••3
•••••••••••••••••••32
••••••••••••••••61
CHINA
4 Coexisting «Unworldly" and «Mundane" Worlds
Traditional Chinese Dwellings 83
Hall and Courtyard Composition 83
Climatic Influences 90
Lifestyle: Hierarchal Private/Communal Composition 91
Contemporary Housing: Single-Family Style 100
Courtyards (Ting) Versus Gardens 100
............................................................. 83
5 Spatial Composition of the Unworldly•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••103
Ting Yuan, Prototype of the Yuanlin 103
Garden-Related Terminology 106
An Outline ofthe History of Chinese Gardens 106
The Garden Treatise Yuan Ye 108
Private Yuanlin: Compositional Techniques 110
6 Ideology and Prototypes ...................................................... •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••119
Confucian Thought and Social Structure 119
Prototype of Ting Yuan and Yuanlin-Chinese Landscape Painting Theory 120
Hierarchical Dwelling Composition 127
The "Mundane" and the "Unworldly" 127
KOREA
7 Traditional Korean Residences and Their Gardens •••••••••••••••••••••••131
Influences on the Composition of Traditional Korean Residences 132
Location: Factors Based on the Geomantic Principles of P'ungsu 132
Social Status: Factors Based on the Traditional Hierarchical Class System 134
Social Mores: Factors Based on Confucian Principles 137
Function: Factors Based on the Ondol System of Heating 143
Locality: Factors Related to the Dwelling's Locale (Urban Versus Rural) 149
Ch'ae and Madang: Combined Interior and Exterior Spaces 150
Comparison of Korean with Chinese and Japanese Residences 158
8 The "Uncultivated" Garden .
Defining the Korean Approach to Garden Making 160
Borrowed Scenery Versus Prospect 163
Prospect and Borrowed Scenery in the Composition of Residences 164
Twitmadang (Rear Garden)-A Private Exterior Space 166
Outer Gardens-The Traditional Form Presented to the Outside World 173
The Pyolso Environment 178
Korean Garden Forms 184
I have been studying traditional Japanese dwellings
(minka) since 1962, particularly in the Kansai, Chubu,
and Tohoku regions, and have continued to follow the
transformations in these homes with great interest over
the years. My motivation was very simple-I was interested
in the question of why these buildings had survived in
Japan. Were minka the only example of buildings that had
retained their original wood-frame skeletal structure from
their construction in the Edo period, through the Meiji
and Taisho eras and the turbulent Showa period into
postwar, modern Japan? And if so, why? My interest
stemmed from a fundamental doubt about modern
methods of designing and building homes, especially the
methods used in multi-storied housing complexes, which
are not designed with a

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: dan mihalache on May 28, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/25/2013

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THE
TashiroInaji
Translatedandadapted
by
PamelaVirgilio
AS
Form
and
Spirit
in
the
Gardens
of
Japan,
China,
and
Korea
 
THE
GARDEN
AS
ARCHITECTURE
FormandSpiritin
the
Gardens
of
Japan,China,andKorea
Tashiro
Inaji
Translatedandadapted
by
PamelaVirgilio
KODANSHAINTERNATIONAL
Tokyo·NewYarkLondon
 
NOTE:
Namesaregiveninthetraditionalmanner,surnameprecedinggivenname.MacronsareusedonallJapanesetermsexceptplacenames.JACKETPHOTOGRAPHSFront
JAPAN-Shisendo,
Kyoto.Back(above)
CHINA-Ge
yuan,Yangzhou.Back(below)
KOREA-Kyongbokkung,
Seoul.Originallypublishedas
Teien
tojukyono
ariyo
to
misekata,miekata:
nihon,
chugoku;
kankoku.
Tokyo:Sankaido,1990.DistributedintheUnitedStatesbyKodanshaAmerica,Inc.,114FifthAvenue,NewYork,NewYork10011,andintheUnitedKingdomandcontinentalEuropebyKodanshaEuropeLtd.,95Aldwych,LondonWC2B4JF.PublishedbyKodanshaInternational,Ltd.,17-14Otowa1-chome,Bunkyo-ku,Tokyo112-8652,andKodanshaAmerica,Inc.Copyright
©
1998byToshiroInaji.Englishtranslationcopyright
©
1998byKodanshaInternational.Allrightsreserved.PrintedinJapan.Firstedition,1998989900010210987654321ISBN4-7700-1712-XLibraryofCongressCIPdataavailable

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