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The Literary Forms in Philippine Literature

The Literary Forms in Philippine Literature

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Published by: mimi_sem on Jun 18, 2010
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01/03/2013

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The Literary Forms inPhilippine Literature
 by: Christine F. Godinez-OrtegaThe diversity andrichness of Philippineliterature evolved side byside with the country'shistory. This can best beappreciated in the contextof the country's pre-colonial cultural traditionsand the socio-politicalhistories of its colonial andcontemporary traditions.The average Filipino'sunfamiliarity with hisindigenous literature waslargely due to what has been impressed upon him:that his country was"discovered" and, hence,Philippine "history" startedonly in 1521.So successful were theefforts of colonialists to blot out the memory of thecountry's largely oral pastthat present-day Filipinowriters, artists and journalists are trying tocorrect this inequity byrecognizing the country'swealth of ethnic traditionsand disseminating them inschools and in the massmedia.The rousings onationalistic pride in the1960s and 1970s alsohelped bring about thischange of attitude among anew breed of Filipinosconcerned about the"Filipino identity." 
Pre-Colonial Times
Owing to the works of our own archaeologists,ethnologists andanthropologists, we are ableto know more and bette judge information aboutour pre-colonial times setagainst a bulk of materialabout early Filipinos asrecorded by Spanish,Chinese, Arabic and other chroniclers of the past.Pre-colonialinhabitants of our islandsshowcase a rich pastthrough their folk speeches,folk songs, folk narrativesand indigenous rituals andmimetic dances that affirmour ties with our SoutheastAsian neighbors.The most seminal of these folk speeches is theriddle which is
tigmo
inCebuano,
bugtong 
inTagalog,
 paktakon
inIlongo and
 patototdon
inBicol. Central to the riddleis the
talinghaga
or metaphor because it"reveals subtleresemblances between twounlike objects" and one's power of observation andwit are put to the test.While some riddles areingenious, others verge onthe obscene or are sex-related:
Gaddang:
 
Gongonan nu usin yamam
If you pull your daddy's penis
Maggirawa pay sila yinam.
Your mommy'svagina, too,(
Campana
) screams. (Bell)The proverbs oaphorisms express norms or codes of behavior,community beliefs or theyinstill values by offeringnuggets of wisdom in short,rhyming verse.The extended form,
tanaga
, a mono-rimingheptasyllabic quatrainexpressing insights andlessons on life is "moreemotionally charged thanthe terse proverb and thushas affinities with the folk lyric." Some examples arethe
basahanon
or extendeddidactic sayings fromBukidnon and the
daraida
and
daragilon
from Panay.The folk song, a formof folk lyric whichexpresses the hopes andaspirations, the people'slifestyles as well as their loves. These are oftenrepetitive and sonorous,didactic and naive as in thechildren's songs or 
 Ida-ida
(Maguindanao),
tulang  pambata
(Tagalog) or 
cansiones para abbing 
(Ibanag).A few examples are thelullabyes or 
 Ili-ili
(Ilongo);love songs like the
 panawagon
and
balitao
(Ilongo);
harana
or serenade (Cebuano); the
bayok 
(Maranao); theseven-syllable per line poem,
ambahan
of theMangyans that are abouthuman relationships, socialentertainment and alsoserve as a tool for teachingthe young; work songs thatdepict the livelihood of the people often sung to gowith the movement of workers such as the
kalusan
(Ivatan),
 soliranin
(Tagalog rowing song) or the
mambayu
, a Kalingarice-pounding song; theverbal jousts/games like the
duplo
popular duringwakes.Other folk songs arethe drinking songs sungduring carousals like thetagay (Cebuano andWaray); dirges andlamentations extolling thedeeds of the dead like the
kanogon
(Cebuano) or the
 Annako
(Bontoc).A type of narrativesong or 
kissa
among theTausug of Mindanao, the
 parang sabil 
, uses for itssubject matter the exploitsof historical and legendaryheroes. It tells of a Muslimhero who seeks death at thehands of non-Muslims.The folk narratives, i.e.epics and folk tales arevaried, exotic and magical.They explain how theworld was created, howcertain animals possesscertain characteristics, whysome places havewaterfalls, volcanoes,mountains, flora or faunaand, in the case of legends,an explanation of theorigins of things. Fables areabout animals and theseteach moral lessons.Our country's epics areconsidered ethno-epics because unlike, say,Germany's Niebelunginlied,our epics are not nationalfor they are "histories" of varied groups that consider themselves "nations."The epics come invarious names:
Guman
(Subanon);
 Darangen
(Maranao);
 Hudhud 
(Ifugao); and
Ulahingan
(Manobo). These epicsrevolve around supernaturalevents or heroic deeds andthey embody or validate the beliefs and customs andideals of a community.These are sung or chantedto the accompaniment of indigenous musicalinstruments and dancing performed during harvests,weddings or funerals bychanters. The chanters whowere taught by theiancestors are considered"treasures" and/orepositories of wisdom intheir communities.Examples of theseepics are the
 Lam-ang 
(Ilocano);
 Hinilawod 
(Sulod);
 Kudaman
(Palawan);
 Darangen
(Maranao);
Ulahingan
(Livunganen-ArumanenManobo);
Mangovayt  Buhong na Langit 
(TheMaiden of the Buhong Skyfrom Tuwaang--Manobo);
 Ag Tobig neg Keboklagan
(Subanon); and
Tudbulol 
(T'boli).
 
Iba't ibang Sawikain
AHAS - taksil; traydoHalimbawa:Sa kabila ng mga kabutihanniya sa kanyang pamangkin, si Gavina ayisa palang ahas.ANAK-DALITA - MahirapHalimbawa:
 
Magsikap kang magaralkahit ikaw ay anak-dalita.ALILANG-KANIN -utusang walang bayad, pakain lang; pabahay at pakain ngunit walangsuweldo.Halimbawa:"Mga anak, huwag kayongmasyadong magingmasungit sa katulong natin.Alam naman ninyo na siyaay alilang-kanin lang."BALITANG-KUTSERO - balitang hindi totoo o hindimapang-hahawakan.Halimbawa:Huwag kayong mag-alala,hindi basta naniniwala angBoss namin sa mga balitang-kutsero.BALIK-HARAP - mabutiang pakikitungo sa harapanngunit taksil sa likuran.Halimbawa:Mag-ingat sa mga taong balik-harap. Sila'y hindimagiging mabutingkaibigan.BANTAY-SALAKAY -taong nagbabait-baitanHalimbawa:Sa alinmang uri ngsamahan, may mga taong bantay-salakay.BASA ANG PAPEL - bistado naHalimbawa:Huwag ka nangmagsunungaling pa. Basana ang papel mo sa ating prinsipal na isang GinangMatutina.BUWAYA SA KATIHAN- usisera; nagpapautangnang malaking pera.Halimbawa:Maging masinop ka sa buhay, mahirap na angmagipit. Alam mo bangmaraming buwaya sakatihan na lalongmapgpapahirap kaysa saiyo?BUKAL SA LOOB - taos- puso; tapatHalimbawa:Bukal sa loob ang anumangtulong na inihahandog kosa mga nangangailangan.BUSILAK ANG PUSO -malinis ang kaloobanHalimbawa:Dahil busilak ang puso ng batang si Arnel, siya ay pinarangalan at binigyan ngmedalya ng pamunuan ngCebu.DI MADAPUANGLANGAW - maganda ang bihisHalimbawa:Wow! Parang dimadapuang langaw si Tirsosa suot nitong tuxedo.DI MAKABASAG-PINGGAN - mahinhinHalimbawa:Sa tingin pa lang, tila dimakabasag-pinggan angkapatid ni Nestor na si Nena.HAMPASLUPA - lagalag; busabosHalimbawa:Lagi kang laman nglansangan, para kanghampaslupa.HALIGI NG TAHANAN -amaILAW NG TAHANAN -inaHalimbawa:Ang ama, bilang haligi ngtahanan ay dapat natingigalang. Ang ina naman, naitinuturing na ilaw ngtahanan, ay dapat natingmahalin.ISANG KAHIG, ISANGTUKA - kakarampot nakita na hindi makakasapatsa ibang pangangailangan.Halimbawa:Karamihan sa ating mgakababayan ay isang kahig,isang tuka ang kalagayanng buhay.ITAGA SA BATO -tandaanHalimbawa:Ang masasamang bagay naginawa mo sa iyong kapwa,gaano man kaliit, ay muling babalik sa iyo sa ibang paraan, itaga mo sa bato.ITIM NA TUPA -masamang anaHalimbawa:Sa isang tahanan, may pagkakataong isa odalawang anak angnagiging itim na tupa.KALAPATING MABABAANG LIPAD - babaingnagbibili ng aliw; babaing puta.Halimbawa:Maraming kalapatingmababa ang lipad angnakatayo sa gilid ngsinehan ng Odeon sa Sta.Cruz, Manila.KAKANING-ITIK -walang gaanong halaga;hindi maipagpaparangalanHalimbawa:Talagang mahirap angwalang pinag-aralan.Tumanda na sa pagtatrabaho ang anak niMang Julio ngunitkakaning-itik pa rin angkinikita.KAPIT-TUKO - Mahigpitang hawaHalimbawa:Kapit-tuko ang sekretaryasa kanyang posisyon kahitna malulugi ang kompanyaat malapit nang magsara.KIDLAT SA BILIS -napakabilisHalimbawa:Ang action star na si RobinPadilla ay kidlat sa biliskung ang pag-uusapan ayang mga ginagawa niyangaction movies.KILOS-PAGONG -makupad, mabagalHalimbawa:Mahuhuli na tayo saGeneral Meeting: kilos- pagong ka kasi.LUHA NG BUWAYA -hindi totoongnagdadalamhati; pakitangtaong pananangis.Halimbawa:Huwag kang maniwala sakanyang pananangis sakamatayan ng mayamanngunit masakitin niyang bana. Iyan ay luha ng buwaya.MAHANGIN ANG ULO -mayabangHalimbawa:Mula nang manalo sa Lottoang dating hardinero aynaging mahangin ang ulong mga anak nitong lalaki.MATALAS ANG ULO -matalinoHalimbawa:Matalas ang ulo ni Cristinakaya nagtapos siya nangmay karangalan:Valedictorian at Magnacum Laude.MAHINA ANG LOOB -duwagHalimbawa:Ang taong mahina ang loobay kailangang umiwas samga kaguluhan upang hindimanganib ang buhay.MALAKAS ANG LOOB -matapangHalimbawa:Malakas ang loob nung pulis na lumaban atnakapatay ng apat naholdaper sa loob ng pampasaherong dyip.MAKAPAL ANG BULSA- maperaHalimbawa:kilalang matagumpay nanegosyante ang ama niRenan kaya hindinakapagtataka kung si

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