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Prison Systems

Prison Systems

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Published by: alabama1princess7019 on Jul 29, 2010
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05/25/2012

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Prison SystemsLatonya BrownCJS/230July 28, 2010Mr. Lester Julian
 
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This paper is designed to give insight on two different prison systems in America; theyare the State and Federal prison systems. Although they both house criminal in their facilitiesthey house different types of criminals and have different levels of security that they operateunder. This paper will address these topics including when prison first began, including the prisons first prisoners.Prisons has come a long way since the 1800’s back then prisons housed anyone rangingfrom debtors, delinquent juveniles, minor misdemeanants and felons. The prisons were mostlydark, overcrowded and filthy. All types of prisoners were herded together with no separation of men and women, the young and the old, the convicted and the unconvicted, or the sane or theinsane. The poor conditions were described in detail by Charles Dickens, in his book “GreatExpectations”. He describes the prison from his own experience in prison as a child because of debt. Prisons were reformed in the early 1860’s the housing conditions became a lot better,education and books was offered to the inmates as well as a library.Prisons today range from minimum security prisons and juveniles halls, to maximumsecurity prisons and mental institutions. The U.S. has one of the most organized famous prisonsystems; however most of the prisons in the U.S. are facing overcrowding. By the end of 1988,the number of convicted criminals reached a total in excess of 628,000, the largest amount ever to be incarcerated (Lycos Inc, 2010). Over the years, the state prison has really progressed fromdifferent models that have been introduced. The Panoptican design by Jeremy Bentham was alarge prison with a glass top that he argued would provide better lightening and supervision of the inmates. According to law.jrank.org the Auburn model is best described as the establishment
 
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of a second New York state prison at Auburn in 1816 led to a new prison model and regime,designed to keep convicts separate and unable to communicate with each other even as they wereforced to labor as penal slaves. “Industry, obedience, and silence”, were the guiding principlesof the new system. One of its chief proponents and rulers was Elam Lynds, who served for manyyears as warden of Auburn and other prisons. By the early 1820’s, the Auburn plan had resultedin the construction of tiny individual cells and workshops as well as rigid system of enforcedsilence and harsh punishment. Each entering convict was assigned a prison number, whichserved as his or her identity. Movement to and from the workshops was performed in aregimented manner, known as the lockstep, which called for prisoners to march in a militarystyle human chain. There are two types of institutions in the United States, they are private andstate owned institutions. Privately owned prisons usually contracts with the local, state, or federal governments that commits prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate for each prisoner confined in the facility. Whoever owns a private prison is making a lot of profits byhousing these inmates. The downside to private prisons is that these facilities can choose whocomes in as an inmate or employee. State owned prisons are trying to become privately owned because of the money that could be saved. It is costing the state a lot of money housing inmatesand the cost are increasing as time passes. There are five types of security levels at both thefederal and state prisons, they are; minimum security, low security, high security, maximumsecurity, and administrative security. Each security level house different criminals depending onwhat type of criminal they are and what security risk that they may be upon the inmates and the prison. There are all types of criminals in our prison today including our white-collar criminalsor political criminals. These are the criminals who are either rich or own some kind of multi-million dollar business, or they could be state governors or senators. These types of criminals

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