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Chip Formation

Chip Formation

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Published by zakwan051289

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Published by: zakwan051289 on Aug 15, 2010
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05/06/2013

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1
Program : Bachelor in Mechanical Engineering (Hons.)Course : Manufacturing and Technology Processes LabCode : MEM 564TITLE
Study of Chip Formation
PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO)
Programme Outcomes DetailsPO1 Ability to acquire and apply knowledge of engineeringfundamentalPO2 Ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with community at large.PO3 Having in depth technical competence in a specificengineering disciplinePO4 Ability to undertake problem identification, formulation andsolution creativelyPO6 Ability to function effectively as an individual and in a groupwith a capacity to be a leader or manager as well as aneffective team member.PO8 Recognizing the need to undertake lifelong learning, havingentrepreneurship vision and possessing/acquiring the capacityto do so.PO9 Ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as toanalyze and interpret data
 
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OBJECTIVE
T
he objective of this report is to illustrate various types of chip that can be produced duringmetal cutting process, the condition for each type and how they look like. Besides that, wehave to examine the effect of lubrication on chip formation.
INTRODUCTION
In the metal cutting process, layers from metal are removed systematically from a work piece by the action of the cutting tool.
T
he metal removed referred as chips. Basically, the chip produced in the different formed sizes due to various conditions.
T
he type of chip produceddepends on the work and tools materials, the geometry and the speed of the cutting processand the existence or absence of lubrication. Knowing about chip formation and control isvery important because among others, it affect tool life, surface finish of type product,disposal problem and also cost. Roundly, different chip formed different quality of surfacefinish and tolerance.
T
here are three types of chip:1)
 
Continuous chipContinuous chips are usually formed while machining ductile material such as mildsteel, iron, copper and aluminum at high cutting speed and/or high rakes angles.
T
hedeformation takes place along a narrow shear zone, the primary shear zone. Caused byfriction, the chip develop secondary shear zone at the tool-chip interface.
T
he secondaryzone becomes deeper as tool-chip friction increase. Although they generally producegood surface finish, continuous chips are always desirable, particularly in automatedmachine tools.
T
his problem can be overcome by the use of chip-breakers; a deviceclamped to the top of the tool that encourages the chip to curl more tightly, hitting thework piece and breaking off.
 
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2)
 
Continuous chip with a built-up-ageA built-up edge (BUE), consisting of layers of material from the workpiece that aregradually deposited on the tool (additional molten material sticking to it) and may form atthe tip of the tool during cutting. BUE.s can effect change the geometry of the cuttingedge and the rough surface finish produced. Condition for BUE formation:
y
 
M
ating metals must be mixable with each other.
y
 
M
etallic bonding.
y
 
High temperature.
y
 
Ductile materials and high stresses.
y
 
V
elocity must be low.
T
he tendency for BUE reduced by any following practices:
y
 
Decreasing the depth of cut.
y
 
Increasing the rake angle.
y
 
Using a sharp cutting tool.
y
 
Using an effective cutting tool.3)
 
Discontinuous chip
T
his is formed in small segments separately due to periodic rupture ahead of thecutting tool due to high stress applied by the cutting tool. Discontinuous chip usuallyform under the following condition:
y
 
Brittle workpiece material, because they do not have the capacity to undergothe high shear strains involved in cutting.
y
 
W
orkpiece materials that contain hard inclusions and impurities, or havestructures such as the graphite flakes in gray cast iron.
y
 
L
arge depth of cut.
y
 
L
ow rakes angles.
y
 
L
ack of an effective cutting fluid.
y
 
L
ow stiffness of the machine tool.

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