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AN-103

AN-103

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LM340 Series ThreeTerminal PositiveRegulators
Introduction
The LM340-XX are three terminal 1.0Apositive voltage regu-lators, with preset output voltages of 5.0V or 15V. TheLM340 regulators are complete 3-terminal regulators requir-ing no external components for normal operation. However,by adding a few parts, one may improve the transient re-sponse, provide for a variable output voltage, or increase theoutput current. Included on the chip are all of the functionalblocks required of a high stability voltage regulator; theseappear in
Figure 1
.The error amplifier is internally compensated; the voltagereference is especially designed for low noise and highpredictability; and, as the pass element is included, theregulator contains fixed current limiting and thermal protec-tion. The LM340 is available in either metal can TO-3 orplastic TO-220 package.
1.0 Circuit Design
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Usually IC voltage regulators use temperature-compensatedzeners as references. Such zeners exhibit BV
>
6.0V whichsets the minimum supply voltage somewhat above 6.0V.Additionally they tend to be noisy, thus a large bypass ca-pacitor is required.
Figure 2 
illustrates a simplified reference using the predict-able temperature, voltage, and current relationship ofemitter-base junctions.Assuming J
Q1
>
J
Q2
, I
CQ2
@
I
BQ2
= I
BQ3
,Area (emitter Q1) = Area (emitter Q2), andV
BEQ1
= V
BEQ3
, (1)then(2)
SIMPLIFIED LM340
In
Figure
the voltage reference includes R1–R3 andQ1–Q5. Q3 also acts as an error amplifier and Q6 as abuffer between Q3 and the current source. If the outputdrops, this drop is fed back, through R4, R5, Q4, Q5, to thebase of Q3. Q7 then conducts more current re-establishingthe output given by:(3)
00741301
FIGURE 1. Functional Block of the LM340
00741302
FIGURE 2. Simplified Volt Reference
National SemiconductorApplication Note 103George ClevelandAugust 1980
M 3  4   0   S  er  i    e sr   e e er  mi   n al    o si    t   i   v e e  g ul    a t    or   s1   0   3  
 © 2002 National Semiconductor Corporation AN007413 www.national.com
 
1.0 Circuit Design
(Continued)
COMPLETE CIRCUIT OF THE LM340
Here (J
Q2
, J
Q3
)
>
(J
Q4
, J
Q5
) and a positive TC
V
BE
appearsacross R6. This is amplified by 17, (R6/R6 = 17) and istemperature compensated by the V
BE
of Q6, Q7, Q8 todevelop the reference voltage. R17 is changed to get thevarious fixed output voltages.
SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION
1. V
IN
–V
OUT
<
6.0V: There is no current through D2 andthe maximum output current will be given by:(4)2. V
IN
–V
OUT
>
6.0V: To keep Q16 operating within itsmaximum power rating the output current limit mustdecrease as V
IN
–V
OUT
increases. Here D2 conductsand the drop across R16 is less than V
BE
to turn on Q14.In this case I
OUT
maximum is:(5)
00741303
FIGURE 3. LM340 Simplified
      A      N   -      1      0      3
www.national.com 2
 
1.0 Circuit Design
(Continued)
THERMAL SHUT DOWN
In
Figure 4 
the V
BE
of Q13 is clamped to 0.4V. When the dietemperature reaches approximately +175˚C the V
BE
to turnon Q13 is 0.4V. When Q13 turns on it removes all base drivefrom Q15 which turns off the regulator thus preventing afurther increase in die temperature.
POWER DISSIPATION
The maximum power dissipation of the LM340 is given by:P
D MAX
= (V
IN MAX
V
OUT
) I
OUT MAX
+V
IN MAX
I
Q
(W)(6)The maximum junction temperature (assuming that there isno thermal protection) is given by:(7)Example:V
IN MAX
= 23V, I
OUT MAX
= 1.0A, LM340T-15.Equation
Equation (7) 
yields: T
 jM
= 200˚C. So the T
 j
max of150˚C specified in the data sheet should be the limitingtemperature.From
P
D
.
8.1W. The thermal resistance of theheat sink can be estimated from:(8)The thermal resistance
θ
 j-c
(junction to case) of the TO-220package is 6˚C/W, and assuming a
θ
c-s
(case to heat sink) of0.4, equation
Equation (8) 
yields:
θ
s-a
= 8.4˚C/W
00741304
*
Series pass element
Starting up resistor
FIGURE 4. Complete Circuit of the LM340
1   0   3  
www.national.com3

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