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Technical design and equipment: Key to improving feed quality and nutrition

Technical design and equipment: Key to improving feed quality and nutrition

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Why do some feed factories earn profits while others don’t? Why do feed of some factories sell well? The reason behind is technical design and equipment selection.
Why do some feed factories earn profits while others don’t? Why do feed of some factories sell well? The reason behind is technical design and equipment selection.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Sep 07, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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September | October 2010Feature title: Technical design and equipment:Key to improving feed quality and nutrition
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
hy do some feed facto-ries earn profits whileothers don’t? Why dofeed of some factoriessell well? The reason behind is technicaldesign and equipment selection.
Choosing skilled feed engineering con-structors and comprehensive solutionsproviders are also vital for the success of a company.The factors affecting feed quality can besummed up in three aspects, namely:• The quality of raw material• The feed formula• The process technologyWith the same level of raw material andformula, the quality of feed only dependson process technology and equipmentperformance.As the digest system of chicken, pig, fish,shrimp and pet varies, feed of different sizeand degree of ripeness are demanded. Itis one of the important methods for themodern feed companies to improve prod-uct quality by upgrading process technology.Impact of grain size on feed nutritionGenerally, grain size should take con-sideration of many factors like feedingmethod, process costs, capacity and growingcharacteristics of animals.Its empirical value should be no morethan 1/3 of the diameterof pellet.Appropriate grain sizecan improve digestionrate of the nutritiouselement. Research hasshown that if the evensize of corn feed for sowis reduced from 1200umto 400um, its digestionrate could be raised by14 percent, dry materi-als in manure could bereduced by 21 percentand the nitrogen wouldbe lowered by 31 percent.Over grind could leadto more consumption of energy, less capacity anddestroy of nutrition of feed. The research dataproves that VA of pelletafter repeated grind would decrease 40percent.The key point of grain size controltechnology is to grind each raw materialto the best size suitable for digestion so asto ensure the batch feed can acquire bestraising efficiency and economic profit. It ismandatory to study the best digestion sizeof each raw material for different animals asshown in Table 1.Pulverization and micro-pulverizationmust be applied for aquatics feed.Research has shown that carp feed ratiocould raise 5-10 percent if the screen of grinder has been reduced from 1.5mm,1.2mm to 1.0mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. As aresult, grain size has a markable influenceon variation of nutrition.Grain with excessive small or big diam-eter could break into layers which wouldaffect the digestion rate of feed nutrition. Itis only by selecting proper technical design,professional company and equipment cangood quality feed be made.
Impact of batch onfeed nutrition
Formula is a major impact factor for feednutrition and pellet quality. Formula withhigh content of grain like corn and soybeancannot produce high quality pellet feed dueto the lack of natural bond.Addition of highly cohesive wheat canimprove pellet quality.It is necessary to combine each elementin the formula and keep fat to lowestlimit. In case of large proportion of addingmaterials, the condition process should be
Technical design and equipment
Key to improving feedquality and nutrition
by Shao Jianxin, Engineer, ZCME, China
Table 1:
International best grinding particle size
 AnimalRaise stageBest sizerecommended(µm)
PorkAblactation 0~14d 300Ablactation 14~35d 400Grice
500�Corn�Fattening pig 500~600CornSow 500~600CornGrowing pig 15~30kg 323(batch)Dorking 700~900Corn900Beef cattle 1~1.5cmstraw�corn stalk2~7cm�cornstock�hay�Fish
0.5mm�batch�Shrimp 150~175
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adjusted or the materials should be addedafter pelleting.As the core process of feed production,batching accuracy has a direct impact onfeed composition and nutrition absorptionof the animals. As a result, the feed nutritioncan be balanced only with appropriatebatching system.The batching process has a importanteffect on batching accuracy and composi-tion. The major technical improvements liein following aspects:1: The batching scale must be checkedregularly so as to ensure measure-ment accuracy of batching equipment2: The formula should be right and theraw materials can be replaced3: The materials should be fed at properspeed4: The control system should be correct5: The batching equipment must beoperated in correct way6: The batching equipment shouldbe clean so as to avoid crosscontamination7: The batching process especially theuse of medicine should be carefullyrecordedNo-error computer control technologyis adopted to manipulate batching accuracy.Micro additives can be premixed andbatched and high accurate batching systemcan be adopted.
Impact of mixingconformity on nutrition
Conformity is vital for feed quality as itwill determine whether the animal can getfull nutrition from the feed. The air balancebetween mixing bin and mixer also has animpact on nutrition.Too big finish product bins and pelletbins and too long transportation lines willdestroy conformity of feed and reduce theconversion rate of the animal.It is critical to choose the right mixer,mixing period and feeding method in orderto ensure conformity and nutrition. Thecontrol of mixing conformity covers mixingfeed, concentrated feed, additives, premixfeed and liquid feed.The technical improvements in batchingprocess have the following aspects:1: Proper mixer must be selected toensure conformity2: The materials should be added in cor-rect order with big materials addedat first and small ones added later. Allmaterials should be added in properamount and order especially for pro-duction of premix feed3: In case of change of for-mula, the mixer shouldbe thoroughly cleaned toavoid cross contamination4: Premix should be sepa-rated from major mixingprocess in order to pre-vent cross contamination5: The transportation distanceand height of materialsafter batching should be asshort as possible and noconveying equipment likepneumatic device should beadopted as it would causeseparation of materials
Impact of pelletingon feed nutrition
1. Pellet quality control: pelletquality is the precondition of feed nutri-tion which must be strictly manipulated.The conditioning quality is the primarycontrol point of pellet quality whichincludes temperature, time, water and‘pasting degree’ of starch. A second-ary controlpoint coverspowderrate, coolingtempera-ture, mois-ture, blade-even degreeand waterdurabilityof the feed.To meetthe aboverequire-ments man-ufacturersneed propersteam supplyand controlsystems,conditioning,pelleting,cooling andscreeningequipmentwith allcontrolparametersscientificallyadjusted.The steamfed into con-ditioning unitsmust be unsaturated steam, free from con-densed water so as to ensure enough ‘pasting’of starch and prevent machine blockage dueto too much moisture. The steam must gothrough a water trap and a pressure reducingvalve before entering the conditioner.
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12| IIl
| tmr-ctr21
ing of feed with vitamins is asfollowing: temperature
15%, time
60 seconds.As a result, it is necessary tochoose formulation with soundthermal stability. A good pelletconditioner, correct air admissionand mixing methods are also thevital factors for pelleting process.3. Feed enzymes: pellet proc-ess also affects feed enzyme andother microbials.Enzyme and microbial are bio-logical products, the activity of which are usually damaged underthe comprehensive function of high temperature, humidity andpressure. It is reported that theactivity of phytase drops by 87.5percent at temperatures of over80�.So the utilisation rate of N.P. willbe affected. The microbe addi-tives in the feed is especially reactiveto high temperature so that its activitywill be lost completely if the pellettemperature exceeds 85�. It is betterto coat enzyme after pelleting orto use enzymes with better thermalstability.4. Impact on anti-nutrition factors:part of anti-nutrition factors andharmful substances will be killedduring the conditioning of pellet.Anoxia sterilisation before pelletingcan kill various bacteria effectivelyand improve feed quality. It has beena key research subject for profes-sional technicians.Animals have different reactions to thesame anti-nutrition factors as its spe-cies and age vary. The anti-nutritionfactors can be divided into positiveinhibitors for carbohydrate, miner-als and prolease, etc. The pelletingprocess adopts conditioning,high temperature extrusionmethods to weaken the anti-nutrition factors as listed inTable 2 to maximum limit.5. Impact of pellet on starchand protein: the starch wouldbecome ‘pasted’ and proteinwould be denaturated afterconditioning so that the ani-mal can digest and aborb thestarch and protein better.However, it is the technicalissue of a professional com-pany to determine the rawHigh temperature conditioner with shorttime (60-160 seconds) can kill bacteria.Many conditioners of this type have beendeveloped in several countries. The durabil-ity of feed at high temperature should alsobe considered during conditioning.1: Materials with bad durability underhigh temperature and poor ‘strength’should avoid conditioning at hightemperature. Instead, they should becoated later so as to ensure pelletquality.2. The impact on vitamins: it is vulner-able to increase conditioning timeand raise temperature as the vitaminswith poor thermal stability would beeasily lost during the pelleting process.Vitamins like A, E, C, thiamine hydro-chloride, etc will be killed rapidlyas the temperature and conditioningtime is raised.The critical condition for condition-Meanwhile, the flow rate of steam mustbe matched to the feeding rate. As a result,steam with proper characteristics is aprecondition of pellet quality.Technical improvements of steam pres-sure and flow rate covers following aspectsto ensure high quality of feed:1: Control the conditioning of meals,including the adding of steam and oil,and check the quality of steam andkeep a good record of it2: Control the product from the pelletmill and keep record of it3: Control the cooling time, moistureand temperature of feed in accord-ance with the room temperature andmoisture4: Control the fat coated on the surfaceof feed5: Check the hardness of pelleted feedand keep good recordsConditioning process is vital for pelletquality. The mixed materials withhigh content of grain usually stayfor at least 40-60 seconds in theconditioner.Meanwhile, the temperatureinside the conditioner should bekept between 85-98� to improve‘pasting’ of starch. Materials withhigh fibers must stay for shortertime in the conditioner. In case of addition of liquids like molasses,the materials should stay longer inconditioner (maximum 30 minutes)so that it would absorb molassesfully.
Table 2:
Anti-nutritional factors of common raw materials of feed
 Anti-nutritionalfactorsDistributionInhibit function
ProteaseinhibitorPea seed, beetbroomcornRestrain activity of trypsin and pepsin, facilitate secrete ofpancreasGlucosideRapeseed, cabbage,Kale, etcProhibit growth, increase cardiolipin and reduce appetiteLectinPea seedImpair intestinal wall, lose more endogenous protein, inhibitgrowthTanninPea seed and cake,etcWeaken absorption of protein, carbohydratesGossypolCottonseed and cakeinjures gastric mucous membrane, destroy metabolization ofprotein and ironPhytic acidPea seedInterfere biological effectiveness of mineral elements, form proteincomplexSaponineSoybeanDestroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetiteLigninPastureDestroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetiteAlkaloidPastureReduce appetite, inhibit growthNSPGrain feedFacilitate pasting of materials inside enteron, weaken absorptionof nutrition
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of anti-nutrition factory and keep vita-mins; enzymes preparation cannot onlyerase toxic effect of feed but also providea health function.Getting rid of anti-nutrition factors inraw materials has become vital in selec-tion of process technology and equipment.Feed quality and nutrition can be onlybe guaranteed using professional technol-ogy and equipment. With the developmentof nutrition, technicians of professionalcompany can work out better methods toeliminate anti-nutrition factors and makemore contribution in improving feed qualityand nutrition.of security, sanitation and nutrition of feed, it is necessary to equip residue-free conveyor and bins, apply scientifictechnology of cleaning and sequencing.Heat treatment technology should beapplied which includes cooking at hightemperature, extrusion, high-pressuretreatment and ultraviolet irradiation, etc.With the comprehensive application of the above technology, the finish pelletfeed can obtain satisfactory quality andnutrition.
Impact of technical process
The anti-nutrition factors in feed cancause disease of pigs and pets and retardthe growth process. As they are closelyrelated with process technology, nutrition-ists have developed many methods to elimi-nate anti-nutrition factors.However, the nutrition elementsin feed would lose at the same time.Extrusion and expansion at high tempera-ture can improve feed quality and limitlost of nutrition; anoxia sterilisation couldkill bacteria effectively and keep vitamins;fermentation could eliminate toxic effectmaterial of specific size for specificanimals. Protein denaturation has littleinfluence on amino acid but improvesits absorption rate greatly so thatprotein can be highly utilised.6. The impact of post-cooking: afterconditioning, the ‘paste’ degree andwater durability of pellet should beimproved, however, some thermalalert vitamins are destroyed. As aresult, it is better to use formulationswith sound thermal stability or applythe improved coating technology soas to preserve nutrition values of the feed as much as possible; whichis mostly used in the production of aquatics feed or special aquatics feedfor shrimp for example.7. Impact of storage and transportation:cross contamination usually takesplace during storage and transporta-tion. Residue in transportation vehi-cles, bins, buffer hoppers and processequipment could cause cross contami-nation. Harmful microbe and pests arealso source of cross contamination.To meet increasingly high demand
 ZCMEFloor 25th, Friendship Building No.159 Zhao Jia Bang Rd ShanghaiPC:200032PR China
Tel:+86 21 64188282Fax:+86 21 64163299
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