hy do some feed facto-ries earn profits whileothers don’t? Why dofeed of some factoriessell well? The reason behind is technicaldesign and equipment selection.
Choosing skilled feed engineering con-structors and comprehensive solutionsproviders are also vital for the success of a company.The factors affecting feed quality can besummed up in three aspects, namely:• The quality of raw material• The feed formula• The process technologyWith the same level of raw material andformula, the quality of feed only dependson process technology and equipmentperformance.As the digest system of chicken, pig, fish,shrimp and pet varies, feed of different sizeand degree of ripeness are demanded. Itis one of the important methods for themodern feed companies to improve prod-uct quality by upgrading process technology.Impact of grain size on feed nutritionGenerally, grain size should take con-sideration of many factors like feedingmethod, process costs, capacity and growingcharacteristics of animals.Its empirical value should be no morethan 1/3 of the diameterof pellet.Appropriate grain sizecan improve digestionrate of the nutritiouselement. Research hasshown that if the evensize of corn feed for sowis reduced from 1200umto 400um, its digestionrate could be raised by14 percent, dry materi-als in manure could bereduced by 21 percentand the nitrogen wouldbe lowered by 31 percent.Over grind could leadto more consumption of energy, less capacity anddestroy of nutrition of feed. The research dataproves that VA of pelletafter repeated grind would decrease 40percent.The key point of grain size controltechnology is to grind each raw materialto the best size suitable for digestion so asto ensure the batch feed can acquire bestraising efficiency and economic profit. It ismandatory to study the best digestion sizeof each raw material for different animals asshown in Table 1.Pulverization and micro-pulverizationmust be applied for aquatics feed.Research has shown that carp feed ratiocould raise 5-10 percent if the screen of grinder has been reduced from 1.5mm,1.2mm to 1.0mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. As aresult, grain size has a markable influenceon variation of nutrition.Grain with excessive small or big diam-eter could break into layers which wouldaffect the digestion rate of feed nutrition. Itis only by selecting proper technical design,professional company and equipment cangood quality feed be made.
Impact of batch onfeed nutrition
Formula is a major impact factor for feednutrition and pellet quality. Formula withhigh content of grain like corn and soybeancannot produce high quality pellet feed dueto the lack of natural bond.Addition of highly cohesive wheat canimprove pellet quality.It is necessary to combine each elementin the formula and keep fat to lowestlimit. In case of large proportion of addingmaterials, the condition process should be
Technical design and equipment
Key to improving feedquality and nutrition
by Shao Jianxin, Engineer, ZCME, China
International best grinding particle size
AnimalRaise stageBest sizerecommended(µm)
PorkAblactation 0~14d 300Ablactation 14~35d 400Grice
500�Corn�Fattening pig 500~600�Corn�Sow 500~600�Corn�Growing pig 15~30kg 323(batch)Dorking 700~900�Corn�900Beef cattle 1~1.5cm�straw�corn stalk�2~7cm�cornstock�hay�Fish
32 | InnaInal
| September-ctober 2010-
adjusted or the materials should be addedafter pelleting.As the core process of feed production,batching accuracy has a direct impact onfeed composition and nutrition absorptionof the animals. As a result, the feed nutritioncan be balanced only with appropriatebatching system.The batching process has a importanteffect on batching accuracy and composi-tion. The major technical improvements liein following aspects:1: The batching scale must be checkedregularly so as to ensure measure-ment accuracy of batching equipment2: The formula should be right and theraw materials can be replaced3: The materials should be fed at properspeed4: The control system should be correct5: The batching equipment must beoperated in correct way6: The batching equipment shouldbe clean so as to avoid crosscontamination7: The batching process especially theuse of medicine should be carefullyrecordedNo-error computer control technologyis adopted to manipulate batching accuracy.Micro additives can be premixed andbatched and high accurate batching systemcan be adopted.
Impact of mixingconformity on nutrition
Conformity is vital for feed quality as itwill determine whether the animal can getfull nutrition from the feed. The air balancebetween mixing bin and mixer also has animpact on nutrition.Too big finish product bins and pelletbins and too long transportation lines willdestroy conformity of feed and reduce theconversion rate of the animal.It is critical to choose the right mixer,mixing period and feeding method in orderto ensure conformity and nutrition. Thecontrol of mixing conformity covers mixingfeed, concentrated feed, additives, premixfeed and liquid feed.The technical improvements in batchingprocess have the following aspects:1: Proper mixer must be selected toensure conformity2: The materials should be added in cor-rect order with big materials addedat first and small ones added later. Allmaterials should be added in properamount and order especially for pro-duction of premix feed3: In case of change of for-mula, the mixer shouldbe thoroughly cleaned toavoid cross contamination4: Premix should be sepa-rated from major mixingprocess in order to pre-vent cross contamination5: The transportation distanceand height of materialsafter batching should be asshort as possible and noconveying equipment likepneumatic device should beadopted as it would causeseparation of materials
Impact of pelletingon feed nutrition
1. Pellet quality control: pelletquality is the precondition of feed nutri-tion which must be strictly manipulated.The conditioning quality is the primarycontrol point of pellet quality whichincludes temperature, time, water and‘pasting degree’ of starch. A second-ary controlpoint coverspowderrate, coolingtempera-ture, mois-ture, blade-even degreeand waterdurabilityof the feed.To meetthe aboverequire-ments man-ufacturersneed propersteam supplyand controlsystems,conditioning,pelleting,cooling andscreeningequipmentwith allcontrolparametersscientificallyadjusted.The steamfed into con-ditioning unitsmust be unsaturated steam, free from con-densed water so as to ensure enough ‘pasting’of starch and prevent machine blockage dueto too much moisture. The steam must gothrough a water trap and a pressure reducingvalve before entering the conditioner.