"Bubble universes", every disk is abubble universe (Universe 1 to Universe 6are different bubbles, they have physicalconstants that are different fromour universe), our universe is just one of thebubbles.
A generic prediction of chaotic inflationis an infiniteergodicuniverse, which, being infinite, must containHubble volumes
realizing all initial conditions. Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the samephysical lawsandphysical
constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of matter , almost all will differ from our Hubble volume. However,
because there are infinitely many, far beyond thecosmological horizon, there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, andeven identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical volume to ours should be about 10
meters away from us(a number larger than agoogolplex).
Level II: Universes with different physical constants
In thechaotic inflationtheory, a variant of thecosmic inflationtheory, the multiverse
as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever, but some regions of spacestop stretching and form distinct bubbles, like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread.Such bubbles are embryonic level I multiverses. Linde and Vanchurin calculated thenumber of these universes to be on the scale of 10
Different bubbles may experience differentspontaneous symmetry breakingresultingin different properties such as differentphysical constants.
This level also includesJohn Archibald Wheeler 'soscillatory universetheory andLee
Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
Hugh Everett'smany-worlds interpretation(MWI) is one of several mainstream
interpretations of quantum mechanics. In brief, one aspect of quantum mechanics isthat certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations each with a differentprobability. According to the MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. Suppose adieisthrown that contains 6 sides and that the result corresponds to a quantum mechanicsobservable. All 6 possible ways the diecan fall correspond to 6 different universes. (More correctly, in MWI there is onlya single universebut after the "split" into "manyworlds" these cannot in general interact.)
Tegmark argues that a level III multiverse does not contain more possibilities in the Hubble volume than a level I-II multiverse. Ineffect, all the different "worlds" created by "splits" in a level III multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in someHubble volume in a level I multiverse. Tegmark writes that "The only difference between Level I and Level III is where your doppelgängersreside. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional space. In Level III they live on another quantumbranch in infinite-dimensionalHilbert space." Similarly, all level II bubble universes with different physical constants can in effectbe found as "worlds" created by "splits" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a level III multiverse.
Related to the
idea areRichard Feynman's
interpretation andH. Dieter Zeh's
Level IV: Ultimate Ensemble
TheUltimate Ensemblehypothesis of Tegmark himself. This level considers equally real all universes that can be defined bymathematical structures. This also includes those havingphysical lawsdifferent from our observable universe. Tegmark writesthat "abstract mathematicsis so general that anyTOEthat is definable in purely formal terms (independent of vague human
terminology) is also a mathematical structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of entities (denoted bywords, say) and relations between them (denoted by additional words) is nothing but what mathematicians call aset-theoreticalmodel, and one can generally find aformal systemthat it is a model of." He argues this "implies that any conceivable paralleluniverse theory can be described at Level IV" and "subsumes all other ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses, and there cannot be say a Level V."
Jürgen Schmidhuber , however, says the "set of mathematical structures" is not even well-defined, and admits only universerepresentations describable byconstructivemathematics, that is,computer programs. He explicitly includes universe
representations describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after finite time, although the convergence timeitself may not be predictable by a halting program, due toKurt Gödel's limitations.
He also explicitly discusses the morerestricted ensemble of quickly computable universes.
Main articles:Cyclic model and Oscillatory universe
In several theories there is a series of infinite, self-sustaining cycles (for example: aneternityof Big Bang-Big crunches).
See also:Brane cosmology and String theory landscape
A multiverse of a somewhat different kind has been envisaged within the multi-dimensional extension of string theoryknown asM-theory, also known as Membrane Theory.
In M-theory our universe and others are created by collisions betweenp-branesin a space with 11 and 26 dimensions (the number of dimensions depends on thechiralityof the observer);
takes the form of aD-brane.
Objects in each universe are essentially confined to the D-brane of their universe, but may beable to interact with other universes via gravity, a force which is not restricted to D-branes.
This is unlike the universes in the"quantum multiverse", but both concepts can operate at the same time.
Main article: Anthropic principle
The concept of other universes has been proposed to explain why our universe seems to befine-tunedfor conscious life as weexperience it. If there were a large number (possibly infinite) of different physical laws (or fundamental constants) in as many
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