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Table Of Contents

1 OBJECTIVES
1.1 BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY
1.2 TRANSFORMERS
1.4 PROTECTION
2 BASIC ELECTRICAL THEORY
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 ELECTRICAL TERMS
2.2.1 Current (I, Amps)
2.2.2 Potential (V, Volts)
2.2.3 Resistance (R, Ohms)
2.2.4 Capacitance (C, Farads)
2.2.6 Inductance (L, Henrys)
2.2.7 Frequency (f, Hertz)
2.2.8 Reactance (X, Ohms)
2.2.9 Impedance (Z, Ohms)
2.2.10 Active Power (P Watts)
2.2.11 Reactive Power (Q, Vars)
2.2.12 Apparent Power (U, Volt Amps)
2.2.13 Power Factor (PF)
2.3.2 dc Circuit Components
2.3.3 Resistors
2.3.4 Capacitors
2.3.5 Inductors
2.3.6 Transient Effects
2.4 PHASORS
2.5 ac CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
2.5.1 Resistors
2.5.2 Inductors
2.5.3 Capacitors
2.5.4 Circuits with multiple components
2.5.5 Acrostic
2.5.6 Heat vs. Current in a Resistor
2.6.4 Apparent Power
2.8.1 Transformer Action
2.8.3 Induced Voltage in a Conductor
2.9 THREE PHASE CONNECTIONS
2.10 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
2.10.1 Eddy Currents
2.10.2 Hysteresis
2.10.3 Magnetic Saturation
2.11 POWER CONVERTERS
2.12 MACHINE INSULATION
2.12.1 Excessive Moisture
2.12.2 Excessive Temperature
3 TRANSFORMERS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 TRANSFORMERS - GENERAL
3.2.1 VA Rating
3.2.2 Cooling
3.2.3 Frequency
3.2.4 Voltage
3.2.5 Phase
3.2.6 Windings
3.2.7 Connections
3.2.8 Taps
3.3 TAP-CHANGERS
3.3.1 Off-Load Tap Changers
3.3.2 On-Load Tap Changers
3.4 OPERATING LIMITATIONS
3.4.1 Transformer Losses (Heat)
3.4.2 Copper (or Winding) Losses
3.4.3 Iron (or Core) Losses
3.4.4 Transformer Temperature Limitations
3.4.5 Current Limits
3.4.6 Voltage and Frequency Limits
3.5 Instrument Transformers
3.5.1 Potential Transformers
3.5.2 Current Transformers
REVIEW QUESTIONS - Transformers
4 GENERATORS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.3 SYNCHRONOUS OPERATION
4.3.1 The Magnetic Fields
4.3.2 Forces between the Magnetic Fields
4.3.3 Motoring
4.3.4 Limits
4.3.5 Synchronized Generator Equivalent Circuit
4.4 STEADY SATE PHASOR DIAGRAM
4.4.1 Increasing steam flow
4.4.2 Increasing Excitation
4.5.1 Runup
4.5.2 Applying Rotor Field
4.6 PREPARING TO SYNCHRONIZE
4.6.1 Phase Sequence
4.6.2 Voltage Magnitude
Notes 4.6.3 Frequency
4.6.4 Phase Angle
4.7 SYNCHRONIZING
4.8 GENERATOR SYNCHRONIZATION
4.8.1 Armature Reaction
4.8.2 Active Component
4.8.3 Reactive Lagging Component
4.8.4 Reactive Leading Component
4.9 CLOSING ONTO A DEAD BUS
4.9.3 Closing onto a Faulted Bus
4.10 GENERATOR LOADING
4.10.1 Closing onto a Finite vs Infinite System
4.11 GENERATOR AVR CONTROL
4.11.1 AVR Action to Generator Loading
4.11.2 Unity PF Load
4.12 GENERATOR GOVERNOR CONTROL
4.12.1 Droop
4.12.2 Isochronous
4.12.3 Percentage Speed Droop
4.12.4 During Runup
Notes 4.12.5 Normal Operation
4.12.7 Parallel Operation on a Finite Bus
4.14 GENERATOR STABILITY
4.15 GENERATOR OUT OF STEP
4.16.1 Rotor Heating Limitations
4.16.3 generator heating limits
4.16.4 Generator Rotor and Stator Cooling
4.17 GENERATOR SHUTDOWN
4.18 REVIEW QUESTIONS GENERATOR
5 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 PURPOSE OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
5.3.2 Reliability
5.3.3 Security
5.3.4 Sensitivity
5.4 PROTECTION ZONES
5.5 BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION
5.5.1 Duplicate A and B Protections
5.6 BUS PROTECTIONS
5.6.1 Bus Differential Protection
5.6.2 Bus Over-Current Backup
5.6.3 Bus Ground Faults
5.6.4 Bus Under-Voltage Protection
5.7 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
5.7.2 Transformer Differential Protection
5.7.3 Transformer Gas Relay
5.7.5 Transformer Thermal Overload
5.7.6 Transformer Ground Fault Protection
5.8 MOTOR PROTECTION
5.8.2 Motor Timed Over-Current Protection
Notes 5.8.3 Thermal OverLoad
5.8.4 Motor Ground Fault Protection
5.8.6 Motor Over-Fluxing Protection
5.9 GENERATOR PROTECTION
5.9.1 Classes of Turbine Generator Trips
5.9.2 Generator Over-Current
5.9.3 Generator Differential Protection
5.9.4 Generator Ground Fault Protection
5.9.5 Rotor Ground Fault Protection
5.9.6 Generator Phase Unbalance Protection
5.9.7 Generator Loss of Field Protection
5.9.8 Generator Over-Excitation Protection
5.9.9 Generator Under-frequency Protection
5.9.10 Generator Out of Step Protection
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Basic

Basic

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Published by: shameer248 on Oct 03, 2010
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07/28/2012

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