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Published by Siddharth Patel

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Siddharth Patel on Oct 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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What is a tablet ?
Submitted by on Sun, 11/15/2009 - 22:55
What will you gain?
1.1 Why do we need toconvert an active pharmaceutical ingredient into a suitable dosage form?1.2What is a tablet?1.3 Advantages anddisadvantages of tablet as a dosage form
1.1 Why do we need to convert an active pharmaceutical ingredient intoasuitable dosage form?
Active pharmaceutical compounds (drugs) are used for the treatment of a diseaseor for prophylactic purpose. An Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) mayexist in solid, liquid or semisolid form. They are rarely prescribed to the patients as such i.e. without addingexcipients, since the desired effectmay not be obtained. Earlier, it was thought thatexcipientsare inert innature but, in recent time it is well known that excipients can greatly modifythe intended effect of a drug. The API and excipients are suitably processedin pharmaceutical industry to convert them into dosage forms such as tablet,capsule, suspension, solution, etc. The selection of excipients and processingof drug excipients mixture is as important as API itself.Patient acceptability can be improved by controlling the organoleptic properties.Dosage form provides desired therapeutic level of a drug.
1.2 What is a tablet?
It is a solid dosage form each containing a unit dose of one or more medicament/s.Tablets are solid, flat or biconvex discs prepared by compressing a drug or amixture of drugs with or without suitable excipients.Tabletsmay be swallowed whole or being chewed. Some are dissolved or dispersed inwater before administration. Some are put in oral cavity, where the activeingredient is liberated at a predetermined rate. Implants or passeries may also be presented in form of tablet.
Tablet may vary in shape and differ greatly in size and weight depending onthe amount of medicinal substance and the intended mode of administration.
1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of tablet as a dosage form.
The advantages are listed below:I.Large scalemanufacturing is feasible in comparison to other dosage forms. Therefore,economy can be achieved.II.Accuracy of doseis maintained since tablet is a solid unit dosage form.III. Tailor made release profile can be achieved.IV. Longer expiry period and minimum microbial spillageowing to lower moisture content.V. As tablet is not a sterile dosage form, stringentenvironmental conditions are not required in the tablet department.VI. Ease of packaging (blister or strip) and easyhandling over liquid dosage form.VII. Easy totransport in bulk. Emergency supply supplies can be carried by patients.VIII.Organoleptic properties (taste, appearance and odour) are best improved by coating of tablet.IX. Product identification is easy and markings done withthe help of grooved punches and printing with edible ink.X. Different types of tablets are available like buccal,floating, colon targeting, effervescent, dispersible, soluble, and chewable,etc.XI. In composition to parenterals dosage form, a doctor or a nurse is not required for administration. I.e. self administration is possible.XII. In comparison tocapsules, tablets are more tamperproof.The disadvantages are listed below:
I.It is difficultto convert a high dose poorly compressible API into a tablet of suitable sizefor human use.II.Difficult toformulate a drug with poor wettability, slow dissolution into a tablet.III. Slow onset of action as compared to parenterals,liquid orals and capsules.IV. The amount of liquid drug (e.g. Vitamin E,Simethicone) that can be trapped into a tablet is very less.V. Difficult to swallow for kids, terminally ill andgeriatric patients.VI. Patients undergoing radiotherapy cannot swallowtablet.
Key Phrases
Ø Reasons to go for dosage formi) To control organoleptic propertiesii) Achieve desired therapeutic level of drugØ The most widely used dosage form is tabletØ Advantagesi) Accurate doseii) Tailor made release profilesiii) Longer expiry periodiv) Stringent environmental condition is NOT requiredv) Easy handlingØ Disadvantagesi) Slow onset of actionii) Large amount of liquid cannot be incorporatediii) Difficulty in swallowing especially for geriatric and pediatric patients

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