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AC60-22 (Hazardous Attitudes)

AC60-22 (Hazardous Attitudes)

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Published by Edward Rehr

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Published by: Edward Rehr on Jul 19, 2008
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05/09/2014

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P
U.S. Department ofTransportationFederal AviationAdministration
AdvisoryCircular
Subject: AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING.1. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC)provides introductory material, backgroundinformation, and referencematerial onAeronautical Decision Making (ADM). Thematerial in this AC provides a systematicapproach to risk assessment and stressmanagement n aviation, llustrates how personalattitudescan nfluence decision making and howthoseattitudescan be modified to enhance afetyin the cockpit. This AC also providesinstructors with methods for teaching ADMtechniques and skills in conjunction withconventional flight instruction. However, thisAC is not intended o replace he complete bodyof knowledge contained in the ADM relatedreference materials listed in paragraph 4, butrather o support hem and to serve as a catalystfor further study.2. APPLICATION. The material contained nthis AC is applicable to pilots who operateairplanes or helicopters under Federal AviationRegulations (FAR) Parts 61, 91, 121, 125, 133,135, and 141.3. FOCUS. This AC is designed o explain therisks associatedwith aviation activities to pilots.Underlying behavioralcauses f typical accidentsand the effects of stress on ADM areemphasized. These materials provide a meansfor an ndividual to develop an “Attitude Profile”through a self-assessmentnventory and providedetailed explanations of preflight and in-flightstressmanagement echniques. The assumptionis that persons exposed to these behavioraltechniqueswill developa positive attitude owardDate: 12/13/wInitiated by: AFS-820AC No: 60-22safety and learn ways to manage stress whilerecognizingand avoiding unnecessaryisk. ThisAC is a learning tool that will help enable aperson o make an ntelligent determinationas tothe risk involved before beginning a flight. It isintended that the reader recognize risk factorssuch as weather,weight and balance, ecencyofexperience, environment, and cockpit stressmanagement o as to deal effectively with them.4. RELATED REFERENCE MATERIAL.Twelve years of ADM research,development,and testing culminated in 1987 with thepublication of six manuals oriented to thedecision making needsof variously rated pilots.These manuals provide multifaceted materialsdesigned to reduce the number of decisionrelated accidents (the type of accidents whichaccount for 52 percent of fatal general aviationpilot error accidents). The effectivenessof thesematerials has been validated in six independentstudies where student pilots received suchtraining in conjunction with the standard lyingcurriculum. When tested, the pilots who hadreceived ADM training made fewer in-flighterrOrs than those who had not received ADMtraining. The differences were statisticallysignificant and ranged from about 10 to50 percent ewer judgment errors. In the opera-tional environment, an operator flying about400,000 hours annually demonstrateda 54 per-cent reduction in accident rate after using thesematerials for recurrency training. For detailedinformation regarding exposure to riskassessment, stress management, interpersonal
 
AC 60-22
12/13/91crew coordinationand communication, and otherADM techniques, he reader s directed o oneormore of the manuals which may be obtainedfrom National Technical Information Service.a.
Published Documents. (Rice
ofindividual documents is subject to changewithout notice.)Report Number TitleDOT/FAA/PM-86/4 1 Aeronautical DecisionMaking for Student andPrivate Pilots. NTISidentification numberADA182549, price$23.00.DOT/FAA/PM-86/42 Aeronautical DecisionMaking for CommercialPilots.NTISidentificationnumberADA198772, price$17.00.DOT/FAA/PM-86/43 Aeronautical DecisionMaking for InstrumentPilots. NTISidentification numberN8724880,price $17.00.DOT/FAA/PM-86/44 Aeronautical DecisionMaking for InstructorPilots (how to teachADM). NTISidentification numberADA182611, price$17.00.DOT/FAA/PM-86/45 Aeronautical DecisionMaking for HelicopterPilots. NTISidentificationnumberADA180325, price$23.00.Report Number TitleDOT/FAA/PM-86/46 Aeronautical DecisionMaking -CockpitResource Manageme.nt.NTIS identificationnumber ADA205 115,price $23.00.b.
Any
of
the series
of ADM trainingmanuals may be obtained by writing or calling:Mailing Address: National TechnicalInformation Service5285 Port Royal RoadSpringfield, Virginia 22 161Telephone: (703) 487-4650 (orders)(800) 336-4700 rush ordersonly)(703) 478-4780 title identificationbranch)5. DEFINITIONS.a. ~~ is a systematicapproach o themental process used by aircraft pilots toconsistently determine the best course of actionin response o a given set of circumstances.b. Attitude is a personal motivationalpredisposition o respond o persons,situations,or events in a givenmanner that can,nevertheless,be changed or modified throughtraining. A sort of mental shortcut to decisionmaking.c. Attitude Management is the ability torecognizehazardous ttitudes n oneself and thewillingness to modify them as necessary hroughthe application of an appropriateantidote thought.d Cockpit Resource Management,(CRM), in multiperson crew configurations, isthe effective use of all personneland material
ii Par 4
 
12/13/91AC 60- 22
assets available to a flight crew. CRMemphasizes good communication and otherinterpersonal elationship skills.e.
Headwork
is required to accomplisha conscious, rational thought process whenmaking decisions. Good decision makinginvolves risk identification and assessment,information processing,and problem solving.f. Judgment is the mental process ofrecognizing and analyzing all pertinentinformation in a particular situation, a rationalevaluationof alternativeactions n response o it,and a timely decision on which action to take.
g. Personality
is the embodiment ofpersonal raits andcharacteristics f an ndividualthat are set at a very early age and extremelyresistant o change.h.
Poor Judgment (PJ) Chain
is aseriesof mistakes that may lead to an accidentorincident. ‘Iwo basic principles generallyassociatedwith the creationof a PJ chain are: (1)one bad decision often leads to another;and (2)as a string of bad decisionsgrows, it reduces henumber of subsequent lternatives or continuedsafe flight. ADM is intended to break the PJchain before t can causean accidentor incident.i.
Risk Management
is the part of thedecision making process which relies onsituational awareness, roblem recognition, andgood judgment to reduce risks associatedwitheach flight.
.
3
Risk Elements
in ADM take intoconsideration he four fundamental isk elements:the pilot, the aircraft, the environment, and the
Th&as C. AccardiDirector,Flight Standards Service
type of operation that .comprise any givenaviation situation.k.
Situational Awareness
is the accurateperception and understandingof all the factorsand conditions within the four fundamental riskelements that affect safety before, during, andafter the flight.
1
Skills and Procedures are theprocedural, psychomotor, and perceptual skillsused o control a specific aircraft or its systems.They are the stick and rudder or airmanshipabilities that are gained through conventionaltraining, are perfected, and become almostautomatic through experience.m.
Stress Management
is the personalanalysisof the kinds of stressexperiencedwhile flying, the application of appropriate stressassessmentools, and other coping mechanisms.n.
VOR
is a very high frequencyomnidirectional rangestation.
6 COMMENTS INVITED.
Commentsregarding his publication should be directed to:Federal Aviation AdministrationFlight StandardsNational Field Office,AFS-500 (Advisory Circular Staff)P.O. Box 20034, Gateway BuildingDulles International AirportWashington,DC 2004 -2034Every comment will not necessarily generateadirect acknowledgement to the commenter.Comments received will be considered n thedevelopment of upcoming revisions to AC’s orother related technical material.
Par 5
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