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free space optics for antenna beamforming

free space optics for antenna beamforming

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Published by Oka Kurniawan
final year project in ntu, on free-space optics design of true time delay system used in beam steering.
final year project in ntu, on free-space optics design of true time delay system used in beam steering.

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Published by: Oka Kurniawan on Oct 30, 2010
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02/23/2014

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Table of Contents
Abstract..........................................................................................................................iList of Tables...............................................................................................................iiiList of Figures..............................................................................................................ivChapter II.Introduction.................................................................................................1II.1.Background........................................................................................................1II.2.Purpose and Scope.............................................................................................2Chapter III.Theoretical Review....................................................................................3III.1.Previous Works.................................................................................................3III.2.Review of Theory.............................................................................................5III.2.1.Beam Scanning of Uniform Array.............................................................5III.2.2.Beam Squinting..........................................................................................9III.2.3.Free-space Method for Time-delay..........................................................11III.2.4.Phase Shift in Fiber Optics......................................................................13Chapter IV.System Overview.....................................................................................15IV.1. Introduction...................................................................................................15IV.2.System Specification......................................................................................15IV.3.Prototype ........................................................................................................16IV.4.Analysis and Discussion.................................................................................17IV.4.1.Reference Channel Delay........................................................................17IV.4.2.Coaxial Delay Line Cable........................................................................19IV.4.3.Collimator................................................................................................20IV.5.Summary.........................................................................................................21Chapter V.Source and Detector..................................................................................23V.1.Introduction......................................................................................................23V.2.Laser Diode......................................................................................................24V.2.1.Connection and Characteristics.................................................................24V.2.2.Biasing of Laser Diode.............................................................................26V.3.RF Spectrum Measurement..............................................................................27V.3.1.Methods.....................................................................................................28V.3.2.Results and Discussions............................................................................28V.4.Summary..........................................................................................................31Chapter VI.True Time-Delay Units............................................................................32VI.1.Introduction....................................................................................................32VI.2.Design Steps...................................................................................................32VI.3.Design Calculation..........................................................................................33VI.3.1.Maximum Time Delay.............................................................................33VI.3.2.Required Time Delays.............................................................................35VI.3.2.1.Analysis............................................................................................36VI.3.3.Configurations and Dimensions..............................................................37VI.3.3.1.Configuration One............................................................................37VI.3.3.2.Configuration Two...........................................................................38VI.3.3.3.Configuration Three.........................................................................39VI.3.3.4.Analysis ...........................................................................................40VI.3.3.5.Design...............................................................................................43VI.3.4.Generating Time Delays..........................................................................46i
 
VI.4.Summary.........................................................................................................51Chapter VII. Experiments...........................................................................................53VII.1.Introduction...................................................................................................53VII.2.Prototype Setup.............................................................................................53VII.2.1.Components Alignment..........................................................................55Finding Polarizer and Half-Wave Plate Axes.................................................55TTD Units Alignment.....................................................................................58VII.2.2.Discussions.............................................................................................59VII.3.RF Signal Measurements..............................................................................61VII.3.1.Introduction............................................................................................61VII.3.2.Methods..................................................................................................61VII.3.3.Results and Discussions.........................................................................62VII.3.4.Modifications.........................................................................................63VII.4.Time Delay Measurements............................................................................65VII.4.1.Introduction............................................................................................65VII.4.2.Methods..................................................................................................66VII.4.3.Results and Discussions.........................................................................68VII.5.Summary and Recommendation...................................................................73Chapter VIII.Simulations............................................................................................76VIII.1.Introduction..................................................................................................76VIII.2.Simulation on Design Values.......................................................................76VIII.2.1.Beam Pattern for 0Δτ............................................................................79VIII.2.2.Beam Pattern for 1Δτ............................................................................82VIII.2.3.Beam Pattern for 2Δτ and 3Δτ..............................................................84VIII.3.Simulations on Measured Delays.................................................................85VIII.4.Summary and Recommendation..................................................................89Chapter IX.Conclusion...............................................................................................91References...................................................................................................................93Appendix A.Matlab Source Code...............................................................................94Appendix B.Simulation Results................................................................................101Appendix C.PCAAD v.2.1.......................................................................................117Appendix D.Laser Diode Datasheets........................................................................119Appendix E.List of Components..............................................................................121Appendix F.Setup Photos.........................................................................................122
Chapter I.
ii
 
Abstract
Phased array antennas have been increasingly gaining interest incommunication systems. The advantage of using phased array antennas is that theradiation pattern can be controlled electronically. By controlling the radiation pattern, power transmitted can have high gain and high efficiency at the direction of interest. The process of controlling the radiation pattern is also known as beamforming or beam scanning. Beam formation can be easily achieved by insertinga phase shift or time delays between array elements. The later approach is preferredsince it eliminates beam squint problem. True-time delays methods to do beamforming also allow phased array antennas to be applicable for wide bandapplications.The purpose of the project was to design and build a true-time delay systemusing switched free-space section method to demonstrate beamforming capabilities.The project implemented 2-bit true-time delay system to scan the beam in four discrete angles from -45º to +45º. Experiments were carried out to measure the timedelays generated by the units that were built. The measured time delays were thensimulated under Matlab to show the beam scanning capabilities.Time delay measurements and simulations indicate that the system can scanthe beam in four discrete angles. There were some deviations in the simulated beam patterns compared to the designed beam patterns. These deviations were mostlycaused by the errors in the time delays generated. Time delays errors were calculatedand they were about 2ps to 11ps (5.7% error).Small errors in beam angles will be significant as distance increases.Therefore, high accuracy in beam pattern design is a necessity for long distanceapplication. This accuracy can be achieved by increasing the accuracy of time delaysgenerated by the system. To increase time delays accuracy, high precision of opticaldevices dimensions and high accuracy in assembling the time delay units would berequired.Further investigations need to be done on system bandwidth and systemlinearity. Measurements of the beamforming capabilities using real antenna andtesting the system at the receiver side will help to investigate the system performancefurther.i

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