2476 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2007
FPGA-Based Speed Control IC for PMSMDrive With Adaptive Fuzzy Control
, Member, IEEE
, and Ming-Hung Tsai
The new generation of ﬁeld programmable gatearray (FPGA) technologies enables an embedded processor intel-lectual property (IP) and an application IP to be integrated into asystem-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC) developing environment.Therefore, this study presents a speed control integrated circuit(IC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driveunder this SoPC environment. First, the mathematic model of PMSM is deﬁned and the vector control used in the current loopof PMSM drive is explained. Then, an adaptive fuzzy controlleradopted to cope with the dynamic uncertainty and external loadeffect in the speed loop of PMSM drive is proposed. After that, anFPGA-basedspeedcontrolICisdesignedtorealizethecontrollers.The proposed speed control IC has two IPs, a Nios II embeddedprocessor IP and an application IP. The Nios II processor isused to develop the adaptive fuzzy controller in software due tothe complicated control algorithm and low sampling frequencycontrol (speed control: 2 kHz). The designed application IP isutilized to implement the current vector controller in hardwareowing to the requirement for high sampling frequency control(current loop: 16 kHz, pulsewidth modulation circuit: 4–8 MHz)but simple computation. Finally, an experimental system is set upand some experimental results are demonstrated.
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), fuzzycontrol, permanent magnet motors, synchronous motor drives,system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC).
WING to the advantages of the superior power density,high performance in motion control—fast responseand better accuracy, permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSM) have used in many automation control ﬁelds as anactuators . But in industrial applications, there are many un-certainties, such as system parameter uncertainty, external loaddisturbance, friction force, unmodeled uncertainty, etc. whichalways diminish the performance quality of the pre-design of the motor driving system. To cope with this problem, in recentyears, many intelligent control techniques –, such asfuzzy control, neural networks control, adaptive fuzzy controland other control method, have been developed and applied tothe speed control of servo motor drives to obtain high operatingperformance. A high-performance motor control system should
Manuscript received September 7, 2006; revised February 18, 2007. Recom-mended for publication by Associate Editor A. Emadi.Y.-S. Kung is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, SouthernTaiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).M.-H. Tsai is with the Institute of Mechatronic Science and Technology,Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: email@example.com).Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPEL.2007.909185
have a fast dynamic response to adjustments in its controlparameters, so that the motor outputs that inﬂuenced by the dis-turbances can recover to their original status as soon as possible. However, the execution of a neural network or adaptivefuzzy control requires many computations, so implementationof these highly complex control algorithms depend on the PCsystems in most studies , . In recent years, the ﬁxed-pointdigital signal processor (DSP) and ﬁeld programmable gatearray (FPGA) also provide a possible solution in this issue, . Comparing with FPGA, although the aforementionedintelligent control technique using DSP provides a ﬂexibleskill, it suffers from a long period of development and exhaustsmany resources of the CPU .Nowadays, due to the progress of VLSI technology, theFPGA has brought more attention before. The advantages of the FPGA include their programmable hard-wired feature, fasttime-to-market, shorter design cycle, embedding processor,low power consumption and higher density for the implemen-tation of the digital system . FPGA provides a compromisebetween the special-purpose application speciﬁed integratedcircuit (ASIC) hardware and general-purpose processors .Hence, many practical applications in inverter ,  andmotor control , – have been studied. Tzou and Zhou , respectively, gave an FPGA realization of thespace-vector pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for three-phaseinverters. Zhou  proposed an FPGA-realization of a speedservocontrollerofPMSM.APIcontrollerwasadoptedinspeedloop of PMSM drive. Takshashi  utilized an FPGA to im-plement a complete ac servo controller. An application speciﬁcstandard product (ASSP) created to reduce the gate count wasconsidered in this study. Fang  adopted an FPGA-basedchip to design the conceptual core of sliding mode controlstrategy for PMSM. Lin  presented a fuzzy sliding-modecontrol for a linear induction motor drive based on FPGA. Thefuzzy sliding-mode controller with fuzzy inference mechanismto adapt the system uncertainty in real-time is proposed inthis paper. However, the above researches studied the servocontrol system of inverter or ac motor only by FPGA hardwareimplementation with the simple computation algorithm.Embedded processor IP and application IP can nowbe developed and downloaded into FPGA to constructa system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC) environment–, allowing the user to design a SoPC module bymixing hardware and software in one FPGA chip. The circuitsrequired with fast processing but simple computation aresuitable to be implemented by hardware in FPGA, and thehighly complicated control algorithm with heavy computation
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