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FPGA-Based Speed Control IC for PMSM

FPGA-Based Speed Control IC for PMSM

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Published by: chethan on Nov 29, 2010
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FPGA-Based Speed Control IC for PMSMDrive With Adaptive Fuzzy Control
Ying-Shieh Kung
 , Member, IEEE 
, and Ming-Hung Tsai
The new generation of field programmable gatearray (FPGA) technologies enables an embedded processor intel-lectual property (IP) and an application IP to be integrated into asystem-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC) developing environment.Therefore, this study presents a speed control integrated circuit(IC) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driveunder this SoPC environment. First, the mathematic model of PMSM is defined and the vector control used in the current loopof PMSM drive is explained. Then, an adaptive fuzzy controlleradopted to cope with the dynamic uncertainty and external loadeffect in the speed loop of PMSM drive is proposed. After that, anFPGA-basedspeedcontrolICisdesignedtorealizethecontrollers.The proposed speed control IC has two IPs, a Nios II embeddedprocessor IP and an application IP. The Nios II processor isused to develop the adaptive fuzzy controller in software due tothe complicated control algorithm and low sampling frequencycontrol (speed control: 2 kHz). The designed application IP isutilized to implement the current vector controller in hardwareowing to the requirement for high sampling frequency control(current loop: 16 kHz, pulsewidth modulation circuit: 4–8 MHz)but simple computation. Finally, an experimental system is set upand some experimental results are demonstrated.
 Index Terms—
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), fuzzycontrol, permanent magnet motors, synchronous motor drives,system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC).
I. I
WING to the advantages of the superior power density,high performance in motion control—fast responseand better accuracy, permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSM) have used in many automation control fields as anactuators [1]. But in industrial applications, there are many un-certainties, such as system parameter uncertainty, external loaddisturbance, friction force, unmodeled uncertainty, etc. whichalways diminish the performance quality of the pre-design of the motor driving system. To cope with this problem, in recentyears, many intelligent control techniques [2]–[5], such asfuzzy control, neural networks control, adaptive fuzzy controland other control method, have been developed and applied tothe speed control of servo motor drives to obtain high operatingperformance. A high-performance motor control system should
Manuscript received September 7, 2006; revised February 18, 2007. Recom-mended for publication by Associate Editor A. Emadi.Y.-S. Kung is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, SouthernTaiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: kung@mail.stut.edu.tw).M.-H. Tsai is with the Institute of Mechatronic Science and Technology,Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, R.O.C. (e-mail: z4r@mail.stut.edu.tw).Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2007.909185
have a fast dynamic response to adjustments in its controlparameters, so that the motor outputs that influenced by the dis-turbances can recover to their original status as soon as possible[6]. However, the execution of a neural network or adaptivefuzzy control requires many computations, so implementationof these highly complex control algorithms depend on the PCsystems in most studies [3], [7]. In recent years, the fixed-pointdigital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gatearray (FPGA) also provide a possible solution in this issue[8], [9]. Comparing with FPGA, although the aforementionedintelligent control technique using DSP provides a flexibleskill, it suffers from a long period of development and exhaustsmany resources of the CPU [9].Nowadays, due to the progress of VLSI technology, theFPGA has brought more attention before. The advantages of the FPGA include their programmable hard-wired feature, fasttime-to-market, shorter design cycle, embedding processor,low power consumption and higher density for the implemen-tation of the digital system [10]. FPGA provides a compromisebetween the special-purpose application specified integratedcircuit (ASIC) hardware and general-purpose processors [11].Hence, many practical applications in inverter [12], [13] andmotor control [9], [14]–[17] have been studied. Tzou [12]and Zhou [13], respectively, gave an FPGA realization of thespace-vector pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for three-phaseinverters. Zhou [9] proposed an FPGA-realization of a speedservocontrollerofPMSM.APIcontrollerwasadoptedinspeedloop of PMSM drive. Takshashi [14] utilized an FPGA to im-plement a complete ac servo controller. An application specificstandard product (ASSP) created to reduce the gate count wasconsidered in this study. Fang [16] adopted an FPGA-basedchip to design the conceptual core of sliding mode controlstrategy for PMSM. Lin [17] presented a fuzzy sliding-modecontrol for a linear induction motor drive based on FPGA. Thefuzzy sliding-mode controller with fuzzy inference mechanismto adapt the system uncertainty in real-time is proposed inthis paper. However, the above researches studied the servocontrol system of inverter or ac motor only by FPGA hardwareimplementation with the simple computation algorithm.Embedded processor IP and application IP can nowbe developed and downloaded into FPGA to constructa system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC) environment[18]–[20], allowing the user to design a SoPC module bymixing hardware and software in one FPGA chip. The circuitsrequired with fast processing but simple computation aresuitable to be implemented by hardware in FPGA, and thehighly complicated control algorithm with heavy computation
0885-8993/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE
Fig. 1. Internal architecture of FPGA-based speed control IC for PMSM drive.
can be realized by software in FPGA. With the results of the software/hardware co-design function increase the pro-grammable,
exibility of the designed digital system, reducethe development time and enhance the system performance.Our previous works [21]
[23] have successfully applied theSoPC technology to the servo system of PMSM drive, robotarm, and
table.To exploit the advantages, this study presents a fully digitalspeed control integrated circuit (IC) for PMSM drive based onthe new-generation FPGA technology, as in Fig. 1. The pro-posed motion control IC has two IPs, a Nios II embedded pro-cessor IP and an application IP. The Nios embedded processorIP is adopted to implement the adaptive fuzzy control functionsusing software, and the application IP is used to realize the cur-rentvectorcontrolwithhardware.Besides,a
nitestatemachine(FSM) method is also considered to reduce the logic elements(LEs) usage of FPGA in this paper. Hence, all functionalities,which are based on software/hardware co-design, required tobuild a fully digital servo control for PMSM drive can be in-tegrated in one FPGA chip. The FPGA chip employed hereinis an Altera Cyclone EP1C20 with 20 060 LEs, maximum 301user I/O pins, 294 912 b of RAM, and a Nios II embedded pro-cessor. The processor has a 32-b con
gurable CPU core, 16 Mbyte Flash memory, 1 M byte SRAM and 16 M byte SDRAM.Finally, an experimental system included by an FPGA experi-mental board, an inverter and a PMSM, is set up to verify thecorrectness and effectiveness of the FPGA-based speed controlIC.II. S
The internal architecture of the proposed FPGA-based servosystem for the PMSM drive is shown in Fig. 1. The adaptivefuzzy control in the speed loop is developed in software usingthe Nios II embedded processor. The current vector controlscheme for PMSM is implemented by hardware in FPGA. Thedetailed theoretical description follows.
 A. Mathematical Model of PMSM 
The mathematical model of a typical PMSM is described, intwo-axis - synchronous rotating reference frame, as follows[1]:(1)(2)where are the and axis voltages; are the andaxis currents, is the phase winding resistance; are theand axis inductance; is the electrical angular speed;is the permanent magnet
ux linkage. The current control of aPMSM drive is based on vector control approach, such that if is controlled to 0 in Fig. 1, the PMSM is decoupled. Therefore,the developed electromagnetic torque can be simpli
ed to [1](3)with(4)Considering the mechanical load, the dynamic equation of PMSM can be written as follows [1]:(5)where and are the number of polepairs, the rotor speed, the motor toque, the torque constant, theinertialvalue,thedampingratioandtheloadtoque,respectively.
Fig. 2. Block diagram of internal circuit of an FPGA-based speed control IC.
gurationof the current loop of the PMSM drive, including two PI con-trollers, coordinate transformations of Clark, Modi
ed inverseClark,Park,inversePark,SVPWM,pulsesignaldetectionoftheencoder and other element. Vector control (with set to zero inFig. 1) in the current loop of the PMSM drive, decouples thenonlinear and coupled characteristics of PMSM. Accordingly,controlling the torque of PMSM is only need to control the cur-rent in the direction of -axis. The formulations about the trans-formations among the stationary frame, the stationary- frame and the synchronously rotating frame in Fig. 1refer to [5].InFig.1,twodigitalPIcontrollersarepresentedinthecurrentloop of PMSM and the formulations are as follows:(6)(7)(8)(9)where represents axis or axis and is the error be-tweencurrentcommandandmeasuredcurrent.Thoseare P controller gain and I controller gain, respectively. ThearetheoutputofPcontrolleronly,Icon-troller only and the PI controller, respectively.
Fig. 3. Main program and ISR for adaptive fuzzy control in Nios II processor.
 B. Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Speed Control Loop
The solid rectangular area in Fig. 1 presents the structure of an adaptive fuzzy controller for PMSM drive. It consists of afuzzycontroller,areferencemodelandanadjustingmechanism.Detailed description is as follows.
1) Fuzzy Controller:
Generally speaking, P controller inseries connection with fuzzy system belongs to a PD typefuzzy controller, but PI controller in series connection withfuzzy system belongs to a PID type fuzzy controller whichis adopted in our proposed system in Fig. 1. The latter one

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