freshwater fishes. The most common and important ones are the
: Rotifers are very small microscopic animals found in large numbers in the planktonic fauna. When abundant in a water body they are generally indicative of detritus-based food webs that may be eutrophic or approaching eutrophy. Most of therotifer forms are well known food of freshwater fishes. Fry and small fishes eat rotifers.Among them
have been proposed as food for fishes.
have become one of the important components in fish hatcheries.
: Cladocerans are one of the most important of the zooplankton groups,which is good natural food for fishes. The lower crustacean is the principal food item of plankton and is eaten by fry and young fish and also by adults in plankton eating fisheslike Catla. Adult carnivorous fishes consume the higher crustaceans. The most commonand important ones are the
Sida, Alona, Daphnia
Communities of sessile microorganisms growing on stones, sticks, aquaticmacrophytes and other submerged surfaces are periphyton. Periphyton has been found tofrom food of some fishes. Besides phyto-organisms, periphyton includes bacteria, protozoans, bryozoans, rotifers etc. Periphyton is almost universally present in water bodies and plays a significant role in limnological process in water and form the food for most of the fishes especially the economically important carps in the reservoir. Sincefishes directly graze this group, specially browsing fishes, their abundance has a directlink with production in fish culture system. Frequent water level fluctuations often retarda rich growth of periphyton in a reservoir.For good periphyton growth, light intensity is more important than temperature.The growth is distinctly abundant during the warm summer months with bright sunlight.A decline of growth is generally preceded by a decline in penetration of adequate lightinto water. Composition of organisms in the periphyton is similar to plankton. Thecomposition and their ratio exhibit location specific temporal and spatial variations.Diatom groups are predominantly represented by
Asteroinella, Amphora, Navicula, Fragilaria,
. Among blue-green algae,
etc. are present in large densities. Chlorophyceae is also well representedwith
Pediastrum, Spirogyra, Oedogonium
etc. A large number of sessile and free livingciliates also occurred among periphyton (
Vorticella, Hexotricha, Oxytricha
The benthos occupies an important position in the reservoir ecosystem and it plays akey role in the food chain, which in turn affects the cycling of minerals hence as acomponent of fish food in an aquatic ecosystem, the benthos assumes great significance.